Saturday, August 31, 2019

My last farewell

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Compare and Contrast the Marketing Strategies of Li Ning

English Language Centre Cover Sheet | Draft| X| Course Work Submission| Put an X in the box to show whether this is a draft or a credit-bearing coursework assignment Full Name (in pinyin)| | Yinqin Wang| English Name (optional)| | | ID Number| 1101133| Class (e. g. Y2_EEE_A1)| Y2_BAD_A2| Programme| Business Administration| Module Code| EAP105|Assignment Title| Compare and contrast the marketing strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally| Submission Deadline| 22 October 2012 before 20:00| EAP Tutor’s Name| Jacqueline Banki| Final Word Count| 1057| I certify that: * I have read and understood the University’s definitions of COLLUSION and PLAGIARISM (available on p. 31 of the current Academic Student Handbook of Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University and in the 2011 ELC Student Handbook Appendix 2, 4, and 5).With reference to these definitions, I certify that: * I have not colluded with any other student in the preparation and production of this work; * thi s document has been written solely by me and in my own words except where I have clearly indicated and acknowledged that I have quoted or used figures from published or unpublished sources (including the web); * where appropriate, I have provided an honest statement of the contributions made to my work by other people including technical and other support staff.I understand that unauthorised collusion and the incorporation of material from other works without acknowledgement (plagiarism) are serious disciplinary offences. By uploading my assignment onto ICE, I formally declare that all the above statements are true. Scoring – For Teachers Use (teachers may change descriptor labels below as needed)| Marker| Initials| C| O| G| V| R| Final Mark| First – red pen| | | | | | | | Second – green pen| | | | | | | | Third (if needed)| | | | | | | | For Academic Office Use| Other Penalties|Date Received| Days Late| Late Penalty| Marker Initials| Format (Y/N)| Plagiarism Co de| Collusion Code| | | | 1. | | | | | | | 2. | | | | Compare and contrast the marketing strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally With Chinese economy developing rapidly recent years and the huge success of 2008 Beijing Olympics, Chinese sportswear market has emerged a blooming scene. Not only the mighty foreign brands such as Nike and Adidas win the favor of Chinese people, which took 10. 5% and 7. % of mainland sportswear transactions respectively in 2011, the domestic brands such as Li Ning and Anta also occupy large market share (China Daily, 2012). Li Ning, the Chinese domestic sportswear brand which bears the name of renowned Chinese gymnastic athlete Li Ning, acts a leading role in Chinese sportswear market. Only secondly to Adidas, Li Ning possesses 7. 2% market share and keeps expanding (China Daily, 2012). Not satisfied with its immense domestic achievement, Li Ning strives for more enormous stage and switches its target to international market since 2011.Not ably, on the one hand, the domestic marketing strategies of Li Ning, such as opening and streamlining numerous retail stores, are somehow quite different from the international strategies like using e-commerce approach. On the other hand, the strategies domestically and internationally also share several similarities like attaching importance to branding. The emphasis of this essay is to compare and contrasts the domestic and international marketing strategies of Li Ning. Although to some extent few of these strategies are alike, Li Ning has largely followed diverse approaches domestically and internationally.To begin with, there are some similarities between the market strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally, such as investing more in branding to cultivate its long-term competitiveness. Specifically, both domestic and international strategies take steps to sponsor famed athletes or sports team to advertise the high quality and advanced functionality of its products, which aims to make people hold a favorable impression of Li Ning. For instance, in 2012 London Olympics, various overseas medal candidates like Spain’s basketball team were signed with Li Ning (Brandchannel, 2012).Also, Li Ning grasped Chinese top gold medal forecasts in multifarious sports events like ping pong and badminton, which includes Lin Dan and Wu Mingxia who enjoy the high popularity among Chinese people (Brandchannel, 2012). Especially, the athletes who are sponsored by Li Ning are inspired to publicize Li Ning not only by wearing its products. For example, immediately after Lin Dan won the gold though the spectacular final game, the logo of Li Ning at the jersey of Lin was tugged to display a gesture of appreciations, which makes the effect of advertising cracking (Brandchannel, 2012).Furthermore, domestic strategies are also similar to international strategies in targeting young generations. Domestically, Li Ning replaced old logo and slogan to make the brand mor e abut to the generation born after 1990s as well as establishes new â€Å"sixth-generation stores† which attracting young clients (China Daily, 2011). World widely, Li Ning also focuses on young people because they are unbiased to Chinese brands, accustomed to shopping online and generally spend so much time surfing the Internet, which opportunely corresponds to the e-commerce strategy of Li Ning (Ad Age, 2011).Although the domestic and international strategies share some similarities, they nevertheless employ fundamentally different approaches in a number of key areas, such as using different channels to sell products. In other words, the strategies domestically direct to sell inventories mainly in solid shops, whereas the international strategies prefer using e-commerce, event marketing and digital media. In detail, numerous retail shops spread all over China are owned by Li Ning.Also, confronted the cooling Chinese economy in recent times, in order to raise the efficiency of entity sales, the company adopts measures that streamlining the network of the retail stores and entering lower tiers cities to speed eliminating premium brands by merger and acquisition(China Daily, 2012). When it turns to worldwide, to shun retail channels, Li Ning established its appropriative e-commerce sites as the only passageway to its products and released a delicate teaser video heavily on its Facebook page and twitter account (Voight, 2012).Also, microsites and events are relied to induce online buzz (Voight, 2012). In addition, the domestic and international strategies are dissimilar in the slogan and the images they are intended to shape. Domestically, Li Ning created a new slogan â€Å"make the change† to indicate that greatness is not undying, only changes can be perpetual, which not only nettles the slogan of Nike â€Å"Live through your greatness†, but also remodels the impression of Chinese people on Li Ning as a more high-end brand (Brandchannel, 2012).Internationally, the slogan â€Å"straight out of new China† demonstrates that its products leverage its rich Chinese culture and are diverse from the cheap, rough made-in-China goods as old perception considered (Voight, 2012). Furthermore, with regards to new marketing segments need to be expanded, Li Ning focus on Children garment domestically while women market segment internationally. Cooperated with local children garment firm Paclantic to design more attractive children sports and leisure clothing, the clothes could be sold in the franchised stores and affiliated shops of Li Ning in China (Wang, 2012).Nevertheless, the market segment of women who do not need intramuscular figures and desire equal positions with men are attached importance to by the international strategies of Li Ning (Warc, 2011). In summary, this essay has made comparisons and contrasts between the marketing strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally. The domestic strategies, like th e international ones, have strong sponsor awareness and also aim to attract younger generations.Despite that the international and domestic strategies have to some degree implemented similar strategies; essentially approaches are adopted in crucial areas, such as using different slogans, selling products by different channels and expanding different market segments. Although the e-commerce method ingeniously avoids complex retail channels internationally and the notion to achieve long-term profits domestically seem to be reasonable, Li Ning may ot achieve so many profits as they expected, because its vague brand positioning might cause the confusion and misconstrue of domestic people and its international consumers may despise Li Ning for its imitative logo and slogan which have some resemblance to Nike and Adidas. It is suggested that Li Ning should slow down its expansion and invest more to raise the quality and make some innovations instead of having large inventories discounted as a result of expanding too fast. Also, to have explicit brand positioning is crucial.Nonetheless, as Li Ning keeps adjusting corresponded to the changing situation and creating new products, it is too early to definitively judge whether Li Ning will have a promising future. References list Ad Age (2011). China's Li-Ning Takes on Nike, Adidas With U. S. E-Commerce Site. [online]  New York: Ad Age. Available from: http://adage. com/article/cmo-interviews/china-s-li-ning-takes-nike-u-s-e-commerce-site/231642/. (Accessed 12 October 2012) Brandchannel (2012). London 2012: Success as Li-Ning ‘Makes a Change' in Olympics Strategy. [online] New York: brandchannel. Available from: http://www. randchannel. com/home/post/2012/08/13/London-2012-Li-Ning-081312. aspx. (Accessed: 12 October 2012) China Daily (2011). Li Ning expects business to slow. [online] Beijing: China Daily. Available from: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/bizchina/2011-01/18/content_11874065. htm. (Accessed: 12 Octo ber 2012) China Daily (2012). China's sportswear brands nurse Olympics hangover. [online] Beijing: China Daily. Available from: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/londongames/2012-07/02/content_15542591. htm. (Accessed: 12 October 2012) Voight, J. (2012). Video Is Lifeblood of Li-Ning's ‘New China' Sneaker Launch. online] Charlotte: ClickZ. Available from: http://www. clickz. com/clickz/news/2166538/video-lifeblood-li-nings-china-snea ker-launch. (Accessed: 12 October 2012) Warc (2011). Li-Ning plans global push. [online] London: Warc. Available from: http://www. warc. com/Content/News/Li-Ning_plans_global_push. content? ID=e7907838-2cd7-4859-ae44-f1695abdbd52;q. ( Accessed: 12 October 2012) Wang, W. (2012). Li Ning rejoins race in children's wear market. [online] Beijing: China Daily. Available from: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/2012-05/12/content_15276320. htm. (Accessed: 12 October 2012) Compare and Contrast the Marketing Strategies of Li Ning Compare and contrast the marketing strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally With the development of Chinese economy, sports industry has become one of the new industries in china, which has large market size and high growth rate (Qinqin, n. d. ). In Chinese sports area, Li Ning brand, built by famous gymnast Li Ning (Enright, 2012), is the market leader and owns about 8000 hypostatic shops domestically (Zhang,2011). Similar to some international famous brands like Nike and Adidas, Li Ning intends to enhance influence by exploring international market (Sauer, 2012).For this reason, the essay will compare and contrast the marketing strategies of Li Ning domestically and internationally. A close look at the sources available, it seems that the topic could be analyzed from the internal aspect such as sales methods, promotion and the external aspect such as consumption concept and competition. The essay will compare and analyze Li Ning’s marketing strategies by the in ternal and external aspects’ factors. From the internal perspective, there are two main sales strategies should be considered as follows: sales methods and promotion.In regard to sales methods, Li Ning implements entity sales and e-commerce sales at home and abroad simultaneously (Anon, 2011a, Voight, 2012 and Zhang, 2011). Nevertheless, the focus of sales methods might be different considering the contrasting name reputation domestically and internationally. Li Ning, named after china’s gold-medaling gymnast, is very famous in china, especially after the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing (Enright, 2012). As typical local brand with high name reputation, Li Ning chooses entity sales as its main way of sale domestically and there are almost 8000 hypostatic shops in china (Zhang, 2011).Whereas the name Li Ning perhaps unfamiliar in the West. For instance, the marketing firm tested the brand with U. S. customers and the result shows that brand awareness was almost 0% (Enright , 2012). Rather than seeing it as a bad thing, Li Ning sees it as a launch point to â€Å"upgrade the brand image and win recognition from consumers† (Zhang, 2011). What is why â€Å"Li-Ning is planning to concentrate on the new online portal before opening more brick-and-mortar stores† in U. S. market (Anon, 2011a). In order to achieve more name reputation and higher sales, Li Ning fixes much attention n another sales strategy, promotion, as well. Both foreign and domestic, Li Ning has been paying much attention to Olympic Games and sports super stars (Anon, 2011b and Sauer, 2012). At home, since 1992 in Barcelona, China’s Olympic terms have chosen Li Ning as a fixture and the brand still counts on gold-medal terms such as Chinese ping pong, shooting gymnastics and badminton teams (Anon, 2011b). Overseas, Li Ning was the 30th Olympic Games sponsorship in 2012 (Sauer, 2012) and invited NBA All-Star teams players to speak for it (Anon, 2011b).Moreover, according to different national culture, Li Ning even used different slogans to appeal to the nationalist fervor. For instance, where the word â€Å"you† was used by Nike in America, Li Ning chose the slogan â€Å"we can† domestically and â€Å"the moment† for international audience (Anon, 2011b). On the other hand, in external aspect, Li Ning has taken a series of measures to deal with two social problems: target groups and fierce competition (Anon, 2011a, Ranasinghe, 2012 and Zhang, 2011). With the rapid development of internationalization, various views on Chinese goods have been published.In china, instead of praising highly local brand, Chinese customers are worried about the Chinese sports brand’s store quality is not equal to the brand's quantity (Zhang, 2011), preferring internationally famous brands like Nike and Adidas (Ranadinghe, 2012) and transforming the cost from sports to food and beverage (Ranasinghe, 2012). On abroad, although some older consumers usually think of China-made products as fakes or knockoffs, younger consumers do not see Chinese products as second-class or counterfeits (Enright, 2012).Regarding the situation, in recent years, Li Ning has been trying to make the brand more youthful and upmarket (Anon, 2011b). For the new strategy, Li Ning not only created a new logo and new slogans but also launched many new products with a better outlook and quality, which aimed to appeal to domestic and foreign younger generation (Zhang, 2011). Furthermore, Li Ning has managed to expand to different areas at home and internationally as well (Anon, 2011a, Anon 2011b and Wen, 2012).In view of China’s family planning policy, Li Ning has rejoined the battle of children’s garments by cooperated with another company in Tianjin (Wen, 2012). In consideration of the case that many foreign customers have great curiosity about eastern culture (Voight, 2012); Li Ning puts brand international feeling over oriental theme (Zhan g, 2012). For example, in March 2012, Li Ning promoted a pair of men’s basketball shoes with the Chinese dragon pattern which was a limited edition on Facebook, and then the tremendous crowds to Li Ning’s website led it to collapse (Voight, 2012).In addition, Women have become another one of the main target groups of Li Ning overseas (Anon, 2011a). Next, the second problem Li Ning is facing is the large-scale competition with local brands and international brands domestically and internationally (Anon, 2011a et al). The fierce competition â€Å"not only has it been forced to scale back its plans for world domination, but it also now finds itself at risk in its home market against domestic rivals like Peak and 361 °, but also with global heavy hitters Nike and Adidas† (Sauer, 2012).The difference is that language might be the main barrier Li Ning needs to face in international market (Zhang, 2012). With a view to the situation, on the one hand, Li Ning decided to slow the pace of new openings and close some inefficient stores to curtail expense and store energy (Ranasinghe, 2012); on the other hand, Li Ning would enter the second-tier cities to achieve next phase of growth (Anon, 2012). To sum up, in internal aspect, Li Ning chooses both entity sales and e-commerce sales at home and abroad. Different focuses are determined due to large name reputation difference.To achieve more popularity, Li Ning focuses on Olympic Games and sports super stars with different slogans. Furthermore, in external aspect, facing the customers’ different consumption views on Chinese brands domestically and internationally, Li Ning transforms its attention to younger people and set new different target groups both domestic and foreign. Li Ning has been facing increased competition with global names and local rivals, and what is why Li Ning determines to slow the pace of new openings and enter the second-tier cities.In future, Li Ning could make greater br eakthrough by implementing brand strategy, constructing international brand image, developing technology innovation and improving enterprises’ core competitiveness (Zhang, 2012). References: Anon. (2011a) Li-Ning plans global push [online] London Warc. Available from: http://www. warc. com/Content/News/Li-Ning_plans_global_push. content? ID=e7907838-2cd7-4859-ae44-f1695abdbd52= (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Anon. (2011b) China's Li-Ning Takes on Nike, Adidas With U.S. E-Commerce Site [online] New York Ad Age. Available from: http://adage. com/article/cmo-interviews/china-s-li-ning-takes-nike-u-s-e-commerce-site/231642/ (Accessed: 3 October 2012) Anon. (2012) China's sportswear brands nurse Olympics hangover [online] China Chinadaily. Available from: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/londongames/2012-07/02/content_15542591. htm (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Enright, A. (2012) Li-Ning makes its U. S. debut [online] Chicago Internetretailer.Available from: http://www. interne tretailer. com/2012/01/16/li-ning-makes-its-us-debut (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Qinqin, D. (n. d. ) Comparative analysis of Chinese and Western Sporting Goods Enterprises’ Growth Pattern. Wuhan, China: Dept. of Sports Economics & Management, Wuhan Inst. of P. E. Ranasinghe, D. (2012) No Medals for China’s Sportswear Firms [online] US CNBC. Accessed from: http://www. cnbc. com/id/48454835/No_Medals_for_China_s_Sportswear_Firms (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Sauer, A. 2012) London 2012: Success as Li-Ning ‘Makes a Change' in Olympics Strategy [online] London Brandchannel. Available from: http://www. warc. com/Content/News/Li Ning_plans_global_push. content? ID=e7907838-2cd7-4859-ae44-f1695abdbd52= (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Voight, J. (2012) Video Is Lifeblood of Li-Ning's ‘New China' Sneaker Launch [online] New York Clickz. Available from: http://www. clickz. com/clickz/news/2166538/video-lifeblood-li-nings-china-sneaker-launch (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Wen , W. 2012) Li Ning rejoins race in children's wear market [online] China Chinadaily. Available from: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/2012-05/12/content_15276320. htm (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Zhang, D. (2011) Li-Ning sportswear looks to win overseas [online] London BBC. Available from: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/business-12665597 (Accessed: 3 October 2012). Zhang, X. (2012) ‘Marketing Plan for Li-Ning Product Expansion in UK’, Lecture Notes in Information Technology, Vol(14), Wuhan, China: Dept. of Sports Economics & Management, Wuhan Inst. of P. E.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Pathogenesis of Fluid Volume Excess in an Acute Exacerbation Chronic Heart Failure Patient Essay

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome of decreased tolerance and fluid retention due to structural heart disease. Despite much advancement in treatment of the treatment of heart failure, there still exists a high annual mortality. In normal situations, an increase in total blood volume results in an increase in renal levels of sodium and water excretion. These renal excretions are due to reflexes that help maintain normal body volume in increase of atrial pressure. Thus any atrial pressure increase results to a decreased release of antidiuretic hormone, an increased release of atrial natriuretic peptide and a decreased renal sympathetic tone. In contrast, when a patient has an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, the total blood volume does not affect renal excretion of sodium and water. Rather, due to either decreased or increased cardiac output, underfilling of the arterial circulation and systemic arterial vasodilation occurs. To compensate the change, total blood volume is increased by the expansion of blood volume in the venous circulation and the increased after-load (systemic vascular resistance). This results in an acute increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Pulmonary venous pressure and the acute increase in left ventricular end-diastolic leads to increased alveoli pressure which results to pulmonary congestion when the alveoli cells are overwhelmed. Further, the stimulated normal reflexes, as a result of increased atrial pressure, are affected by reflexes initiated in the high pressure arterial circulation. For example, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated by increased arterial pressure to release angiotensin II. Angiotensin II acts to help in reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubules. Glomerular filtration rate and excretion of water and sodium is also increased. This, however, is affected in acute heart failure by renal vasoconstriction and a reduction of sodium delivery to the distal nephron. Resulting in the release of arginine vasopressin, as a result of arterial undefilling, which increases plasma and urine osmolalities and leading to peripheral arterial vasoconstriction and water reabsorption in the cells of the distal tubule and collecting duct in the kidney, promoting hyponatremia. The Nitroglycerin and Angiotensin II receptor blockers strategies as Nursing strategies used to manage pulmonary oedema. Pulmonary oedema is the accumulation of excess watery fluids in the air sacs of the lungs and a common result of heart failure. The main objective in managing pulmonary oedema is to improve oxygenation and reduce pulmonary congestion. Two of the several managing strategies are use of Nitroglycerin (NTG) and Angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin (NTG) is an effective, predictable and rapidly-acting medication used for preload reduction. According to Sovari 2012, several studies have demonstrated the efficacy, safety and faster action onset of NTG than of furosemide or morphine sulfate. NTG can be sublingual, topical or intravenous. Sublingual is associated with preload reduction within 5 minutes and with some afterload reduction. Topical NTG, although as effective as sublingual NTG, should be avoided in patients with severe left ventricular failure because of poor skin perfusion thus poor absorption. Intravenous NTG is an excellent monotherapy for patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. It can be started with 10mcg/min and then rapidly uptitrated to more than100mcg/min. It can be given as 3 mg boluses every 5 minutes (Sovari, 2012). The short half-life of nitrates justifies the high dosage for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, especially with patients presenting a hyperadrenergic state and moderately elevated blood pressure. Nitrates, however, should be avoided in hypotensive patients and used with caution in cases of aortic stenosis and pulmonary hypertension. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have comparable beneficial effects in heart failure. Studies have proposed a role for ARBs in preventing structural and electrical remodeling of the heart which reduced incidence of arrhuthmias. The Valsartan Heart Failure Trial showed that valsartan reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation by 37% (Sovari, 2012). The Mechanism of Furosemide Furosemide is a potent diuretic (water pill) that is used to eliminate water and salt from the body. Implications of administering Furosemide to a patient with an acute exacerbation of chronic heart Furosemide is often given in conjunction with a potassium supplement or a potassium-sparing diuretic to counteract potassium loss. The medication has a rapid onset of effect of about one hour when taken orally and five minutes by injection. Duration of action is about six hours so it is possible to use a twice daily dose if necessary. References Adams, K. F., Jr Fonarow,G.C.,Emerman,C.L. (2005). ADHERE Scientific Advisory Committee and Investigators. Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry Am Heart J, 149, 209-216. ADDIN EN.REFLIST Albert, N. M. (2012). Fluid Management Strategies in Heart Failure. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 32(2). ADDIN EN.REFLIST Cadnapaphornchai, M. A., Gurevich,A.K,Weinberger,H.D, Schrier,R.W. (2001). Pathophysiology of sodium and water retention in heart failure. Cardiology, 96, 122-131. Cotter, G., Felker,M.,Adams,K.F.,Milo-Cotter,O.,O’Connor,C.M. (2008). The pathophysiology of acute heart failure-is it all about fluid accumulation? Am Heart J, 155(1), 9-18. Nesto, R. W., DAVID BELL, ROBERT O. BONOW, VIVIAN FONSECA, SCOTT M. GRUNDY, EDWARD S. HORTON, et al. (JANUARY 2004). Thiazolidinedione Use, Fluid Retention,and Congestive Heart Failure. DIABETES CARE, 27(1). Packer, M., Coats,A.J.,Fowler,M.B.,. (2001). for the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study Group. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med, 344, 1651-1658. Sovari, A. (2012, February 1). Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema  Treatment & Management. Retrieved September 17, 2014, from WHO. (October 2013). Model List of EssentialMedicines†. World Health Organization. Source document

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Applying Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Applying Psychology - Essay Example With regard to this stance however, I was not able to provide concrete examples as regards to the costs and benefits, and only described the theoretical concepts. With regard to the third case, while I provided alternative technologies that can be used, I failed to discuss the financial constraints and ethical considerations of using such. I proposed less invasive strategies such as strengthening the questions that are asked, and perhaps improving the systems for cross-checking. TMA allowed me to apply my knowledge of theoretical concepts in practice. However, I noticed a few errors in expressing myself grammatically. More importantly, I should draw more connections between theory and practice through sufficient examples. I am writing in light of your company’s proposition to impose flexible with working from home opportunities through the aid of computer-mediated communication (CMC). I have reviewed your company’s profile against the advantages and disadvantages of using of CMC. I am also proposing several recommendations with regard to the use of CMC which might be helpful as your company reorganizes and moves towards home-based work opportunities. CMC is clearly not a novel process in your company, and to a certain degree it has increased the productivity and work output. According to Joinson and Littleton (2008), there has been â€Å"evidence that the use of CMC in the workplace can be beneficial not just in speeding communication, but in increasing the quality of that communication† (p. 127). Studies by Shirani et al. (1999 as cited in Joinson & Littleton, 2008) and Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1999 as cited in Joinson & Littleton, 2008) have revealed deeper problem analysis and increase of brainstorming ideas in CMC compared to face-to-face interactions. However, there have been contentions to the level of interaction that takes place by using CMC. Without

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Blue tooth technology, standard and application Assignment

Blue tooth technology, standard and application - Assignment Example A number of means of connection were introduced. Getting connected to the internet via a computing device meant you could get connected to each and every other person who was connected to the internet round the world. Bluetooth was just one of the many means by which connections could get established. Bluetooth may simply be stated as a means of establishing connectivity between two or more computing devices without the need of physical connectors. Signals are transmitted via air waves in Bluetooth. It is an open protocol that established connectivity over short distances. The process involves the agreement of both the connecting devices upon a series of terms that would be followed when data would be transferred between them. These may involve the number of packets being transferred and also the size of the packets as well as the duration for which the transfer would be enabled. The technology, named after a 1000 year old king of Denmark, is one of its kinds (Mitchell, 2012). The devices get connected at usually lesser than 1Mbps over short distances around 30 feet in length at most. He united and controlled Denmark and Norway, hence the association of uniting devices through Bluetooth. Legend has it that he liked eating blueberries - so much that his teeth became stained with the colour of the fruit, giving rise to his name!† (Stucken, 2010) The topology supported by the connecting network is termed as the PAN or the Piconet. In this network minimum two and at most eight devices can get connected to each other at a given particular time. The protocols that are part of the Bluetooth specifications assist in the connectivity of the devices. â€Å"Using a special radio frequency to transmit data, it creates a short range network. It is very secure and can connect up to eight devices (items of electronic equipment) at the same time. The chip can be plugged into items such as

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

To be a great leader one must first be a great manager, DISCUSS Essay

To be a great leader one must first be a great manager, DISCUSS - Essay Example Even if a person objects to authoritarian leadership and feels compelled to commit him/herself to just be a good leader, he/she still can face a number of hurdles while running his/her organization if all the managerial knowledge and skills are not smartly engineered first. Leading and management are seen as complementary and related by Andersen (2012). Though leadership and management are distinct, they still should be balanced. The theme of this essay is that one cannot become a great leader without becoming a great manager first who has shrewd and insightful skills about handling people and keeping them sane even amidst the worst of circumstances possible. The essay will discuss how learning to maintain a sound reputation as a manager could be important for a leader and why a leader less concerned about developing smart managerial strategies and good relations with employees can never make it to the top. Bartridge (2007) emphasizes that leaders should practice the 5 L’s whi ch are about looking, listening, learning, leading, and laughing with their team. Such traits not only aspire people to perform well but also build up their connections with staff. The riveting combination of responsible leadership and management actually proves to be the magic recipe for any successful organization. Many people are heard calling themselves the leaders but seldom among them care enough to be good managers also. The old manager vs. leader argument implies that â€Å"some great managers struggle with change and fail to be great leaders, while a great leader might fail to create a sense of stability in an organization and not measure up as a manager† (Blagg and Young, 2001) which is why both leadership and management should overlap. The key element capable of carrying an anonymous leader all they way up to greatness and worldwide fame is good management and big globally successful companies like Apple Inc. and Starbucks fully acknowledge this fact. Both leadersh ip and management, though different in certain aspects, should be carefully balanced with each other as â€Å"both have essential roles in the function and effectiveness of organizations† (DeGrosky, 2012). Hard times strike every organization and every business around the world from time to time but the power lies in sharp managerial skills which can save the ratings of a business in the market from plummeting down even when finances are not so handsome. â€Å"An individual can be a great leader, a great manager, or both, but each area requires the mastery of slightly different skills and competencies† (Ricketts, 2009). People can be managed and carried safely through hard times if the leaders care enough to win their confidence by carefully balancing management and leadership. The Balancing Act as explained by Valenzuela (2010) implies that leadership and management should be balanced to cure the disease in which organizations tend to be either overmanaged or underled . Leaders should know how to listen and communicate as this is implied by good management. â€Å"Leaders need to be masterful listeners; they need to be able to receive as well as send† (Blagg and Young, 2001). Without support of positive style management, leadership alone can never save a company from sinking in the depths of anonymity and failure. In fact without good management, there is no leadership

Monday, August 26, 2019

Project MKUltra Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Project MKUltra - Research Paper Example Project MKUltra scope is broad, with research happening within 80 institutions including colleges, universities, pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and prisons. CIA operated through the institutions using some front organizations though the top officials from these institutions knew of the involvement of CIA. The Project MKUltra came to public in 1975 by US congress church committee and the Gerald Ford Commission in order to investigate on the activities of CIA in United States. However, the investigative efforts suffered adversely when Richard Helms, the CIA director, ordered destruction to MKUltra files. This compelled investigators to rely on sworn testimony directly from participants and few documents that survived the destruction order by Helm. A 20,000 documents cache emerged in 1977 through a freedom of Information request. This led to senate hearings in the same year, and in 2001, there was declassification of surviving information on MKUltra.1 Goals of MKUltra The agency used a lot of money to examine the methods used in controlling and influencing the mind, as well as enhancing the ability of extracting information from resistant subject when interrogating them. CIA attempted to focus the attention of the media on programs to divert the attention of people on the major goal of the research, which developed effective interrogation and torture methods. The substances used promoted impulsiveness and illogical thinking to a level of discrediting the recipient in public. Such substances enabled the subjects withstand torture, coercion and torture during interrogation, and enhanced mental confusion such that an individual cannot maintains any fabrication. In 19532, a secret memorandum granted up to 6 percent of CIA research budget to MKUltra with accounting or oversight. The LSD drug distorted sense of reality of a person. The administration of drugs targeted helpless people with no ability to fight back, and also to the officials of CIA, doctors and military personnel. However, the administration happened without the subjects’ informed consent or knowledge. After the administration, subjects answered questions in the presence of doctors, with stern warnings of punishment in case they failed to reveal the secrets. This aimed at bringing out drugs which irresistibly triggered deep confessions. Other drugs triggered a person to sl eep so that interrogators may ask questions and get answers with much ease. This enabled CIA asks questions, and sometime gets useful answers. Deaths The CIA destroyed most records purposely and failed in following up informed consent when administering the drugs. However, project MKUltra caused several deaths such as those of Frank Olson of United States Army and other CIA officials. CIA used the biological materials in their covert operations. In January 1953, Harold Blauer died after administration of secret army experiment using MDA. Legal Issues Associated with MKUltra Revelations of the army and CIA prompted most survivors and subjects file several lawsuits against the federal government for engaging in experiments without the informed consent. Despite the government trying to evade legal liability, most plaintiffs received compensation through court orders. The CIA and Army director also met together with victims offer their apologies. The Army and CIA had previously sought a successful incrimination of the information, and secretly

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Illinois and United States constitution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Illinois and United States constitution - Essay Example It says that it is because they wanted to form a perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide defense, welfare and secure the blessings of Liberty and prosperity6. The United States constitution is divided into seven articles each with different sections and clauses that address various aspects of the federal government and the relationship with people and the states. The first article concerns the structure of the federal government while the last article concerns the signing of the document by the various signatories7. The Illinois state constitution on the other hand fourteen articles each with various articles and clauses that address various aspects of the state and the relationship with the federal government. The first article is the bill of rights that outlines the various rights and freedom enjoyed by the people of Illinois8. The last article talks of constitutional revision and outlines the various issues to be considered in amending the constituti on. Though the last part of the constitution provides for the transition period from one constitution to another and the various issues that need to remain to enable a smooth transition9. The Illinois state constitution bill of rights begins with the first section that outlines the inherent and inalienable rights of any individual. The rights it points out are the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It then explains the various rights and freedoms enjoyed by all citizens within the state. It has a total of twenty four rights and freedom that people enjoy within the state and each of these is explained in different sections. The rights and freedoms include the following: the right to due process and... The Illinois state constitution bill of rights begins with the first section that outlines the inherent and inalienable rights of any individual. The rights it points out are the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It then explains the various rights and freedoms enjoyed by all citizens within the state. It has a total of twenty four rights and freedom that people enjoy within the state and each of these is explained in different sections. The rights and freedoms include the following: the right to due process and equal protection; freedom of religion; freedom of speech; the right to assemble and petition; the right to be secure from searches, seizures, privacy and interceptions; rights to hearing; rights after indictment; rights of crime victims; right to bail and habeas corpus; self-incrimination and double jeopardy; limitation of penalties after conviction, right to remedy and justice; right to trial by jury; imprisonment for debt, right of eminent domain; ex post facto laws and impairing contracts; right to no discrimination in employment, on the basis of sex, against the handicapped; right to individual dignity; quartering of soldiers; right to arms; fundamental principles and finishes by looking at the rights that are retained . In the US constitution on the other hand, the bill of rights is not found as part of the text in the constitution rather it is found among the ten amendments made on article five of the US constitution.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Worlds of English - Linguistics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Worlds of English - Linguistics - Essay Example This research will focus on the differences exhibited within the three worlds of English, specifically the Inner Circles, Outer Circles as well as the Expanding Circles. In addition, it shall focus on the debates that have been raised in regard to the three worlds of English. Research has shown that the inner circle of English basically involves the fundamental bases of English speakers, characterized by primary or what has been referred as native speakers. The Inner circle of English includes various countries that are inhabited by primary speakers of this language i.e. Britain, Canada, United States of America, New Zealand as well as Australia. According to Krachu’s Scheme, the varieties of English Language spoken in the countries within the inner circle are ‘norm providing’ in nature. That is, the inner circle represents socio-linguistic bases of English and the traditional historical bases, where English norms are set by the cultures of the native speakers or the primary speakers. The average number of English speakers in this circle is approximately 380,000 million. However, some 120 million people within this circle speak the language in other countries. In addition, some researchers have argued that the spread of English stemmed up from the migration of British people to other countries such as, Australia, New Zealand, Canada et cetera. Another imperative aspect of the inner circle is based on the fact that the essence of Speaking English is Multi-Functional in the sense that its transmission occurs through the family and is usually maintained through various government or even quasi-government processes. Quasi-inter-government processes include channels like; the media, schools as well as other pertinent social systems of learning. Moreover, the inner circle of English world is characterized by standard accent, that is, the native speakers of English in this World of English pronounce or term words in an

Friday, August 23, 2019

Mythology Research Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Mythology Research Paper - Essay Example It has in fact been used to stir so many other adventure tales then and now.What is interesting is that the original Greek mythology version involved no glorification of the victor. "For he who was all the world to me, as well thou knowest, hath turned out the worst of men, my own husband." It was the will of the goddess, Hera, herself that Medea fall in love and so it was arranged. Having been unsuspectingly struck by Cupid, she found herself slave to the wishes of the man she loved. She betrayed her father, dismembered her brother and made a criminal of herself in his name. Now, how would such a woman deliver her vengeance if the man to whom all her passions were devoted deserted her The central character was a woman who was about to be deserted by her husband, Jason, who was about to marry the daughter of the King of Corinth in order to further himself. But while Jason thought of nothing but ambition, Medea thought of nothing but her husband. That Medea loved her husband is clear, and Edith Hamilton speaks of that love in its earliest stages in rose-colored language: He spoke first and He spoke first and implored her to be kind to hum. He could not but have hope, he said, because her loveliness must surely mean that she excelled in gentle courtesy. She did not know how to speak to him; she wanted to pour out all she felt at once. Silently she drew the box of ointment from her bosom and gave it to him. She would have given her soul to hum if he had asked her. And now both were fixing their eyes on the ground abashed, and again were throwing glances at each other, smiling with love's desire. (125) Prior to being married and exiled in Corinth, Medea and Jason had been brought together by Hera and Aphrodite so Jason could take possession of the Golden Fleece. Jason was the son of a Grecian king who had been robbed of his rightful seat by his own cousin. He had wanted to regain control, which -his cousin, Pelias, had claimed- would be graciously given to him if he could produce the Golden Fleece. The Golden Fleece had then been in the possession of Medea's father, King Aetus but he too had been unwilling to give away the magical artifact. In order to ensure that the strangers never obtained it, King Aetus had devised a challenge impossible to overcome. Medea had

Personal Action Plan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Personal Action Plan - Assignment Example In developing a personal action plan, you will look at your personal strengths and weaknesses and your ability to think strategically, and you will identify the goals you want to achieve. Answer the following questions to help you prepare for your action plan. My greatest strengths include ability to work in a team and making things run smoothly. My ability to work in a team, as supported by Mosser and Begun (2013) has helped me appreciate what other players in the group are bringing to the table. For this reason, any activities we do as a team is more effective as each and every player has a role to play. My obsession with ensuring things run smoothly has enabled me to complete assignments on time and also deliver error free work. Achieving positive results in assignments depends on individual ability to comprehend and follow instructions. In some instances, my assignments have not met the standards and requirements set forth by the facilitator hence submitting substandard work. Therefore, I need to try to understand assignments a lot better and making certain that I do the right assignments. To achieve this, it would be imperative for me to reread the instructions in an effort to ascertain that I am doing the right assignment, and also revise my work after completion (Kongstvedt, 2007). I have definitely gained accomplished the ability to strategize and think critically in the course of this program. In terms of critical thinking, the obstacles I have faced have forced me to analyze difficult situations dispassionately and subsequently congregate data and other relevant information from all available sources in order to make an informed decision in terms of addressing the problem. In terms of strategizing, I learnt to set my personal objectives in line with the available opportunities. For instance, my objective to become a doctor was based on the available opportunities i.e. the need to improve the health status of the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Case Pneumonia Essay Example for Free

Case Pneumonia Essay Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It is also called Pneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia. Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronic illnesses, it can also strike young, healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in the Philippines, thus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. There are many kinds of pneumonia that range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. In infectious pneumonia, bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms attack your lungs, leading to inflammation that makes it hard to breathe. Pneumonia can affect one or both lungs. In the young and healthy, early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia. The drugs used to fight pneumonia are determined by the germ causing the pneumonia and the judgment of the doctor. It’s best to do everything we can to prevent pneumonia, but if one do get sick, recognizing and treating the disease early offers the best chance for a full recovery. A case with a diagnosis of Pneumonia may catch one’s attention, though the disease is just like an ordinary cough and fever, it can lead to death especially when no intervention or care is done. Since the case is a toddler, an appropriate care has to be done to make the patient’s recovery faster. Treating patients with pneumonia is necessary to prevent its spread to others and make them as another victim of this illness. The lungs constitute the largest organ in the respiratory system. They play an important role in respiration, or the process of providing the body with oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The lungs expand and contract up to 20 times per minute taking in and disposing of those gases. Air that is breathed in is filled with oxygen and goes to the trachea, which branches off into one of two bronchi. Each bronchus enters a lung. There are two lungs, one on each side of the breastbone and protected by the ribs. Each lung is made up of lobes, or sections. There are three lobes in the right lung and two lobes in the left one. The lungs are cone shaped and made of elastic, spongy tissue. Within the lungs, the bronchi branch out into minute pathways that go through the lung tissue. The pathways are called bronchioles, and they end at microscopic air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries and provide oxygen for the blood in these vessels. The oxygenated blood is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. The alveoli also take in carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled from the body. Inhaling is due to contractions of the diaphragm and of muscles between the ribs. Exhaling results from relaxation of those muscles. Each lung is surrounded by a two-layered membrane, or the pleura, that under normal circumstances has a very, very small amount of fluid between the layers. The fluid allows the membranes to easily slide over each other during breathing. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Pneumonia is a serious infection or inflammation of your lungs. The air sacs in the lungs fill with pus and other liquid. Oxygen has trouble reaching your blood. If there is too little oxygen in your blood, your body cells can’t work properly. Because of this and spreading infection through the body pneumonia can cause death. Pneumonia affects your lungs in two ways. Lobar pneumonia affects a section (lobe) of a lung. Bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia) affects patches throughout both lungs. Bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. Of these, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common. Other pathogens include anaerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, C. trachomatis, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other gram-negative bacilli. Major pulmonary pathogens in infants and children are viruses: respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza A and B viruses. Among other agents are higher bacteria including Nocardia and Actinomyces sp; mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical strains; fungi, including Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pneumocystis carinii; and rickettsiae, primarily Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The usual mechanisms of spread are inhaling droplets small enough to reach the alveoli and aspirating secretions from the upper airways. Other means include hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination and direct spread from contiguous infections. Predisposing factors include upper respiratory viral infections, alcoholism, institutionalization, cigarette smoking, heart failure, chronic obstructive airway disease, age extremes, debility, immunocompromise (as in diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure), compromised consciousness, dysphagia, and exposure to transmissible agents. Typical symptoms include cough, fever, and sputum production, usually developing over days and sometimes accompanied by pleurisy. Physical examination may detect tachypnea and signs of consolidation, such as crackles with bronchial breath sounds. This syndrome is commonly caused by bacteria, such as S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. NURSING PROFILE a. Patient’s Profile Name: R. C. S. B. Age: 1 yr,1 mo. Weight:10 kgs Religion: Roman Catholic Mother: C. B. Address: Valenzuela City b. Chief Complaint: Fever Date of Admission: 1st admission

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Problems facing the Triumph underwear company

Problems facing the Triumph underwear company Triumph is an international manufacturer of underwear. It was launched in Germany since 1886 and now it has expanded its business in 120 countries around the world include Malaysia. Triumph has introduced seven series of underwear which are maximize, modern shapes, t-shirt bra, Eco chic, premium collection, miss Triumph and Triaction. Today, women purchase bra not only because they need it, but is to explore their sensuality. It is all about color, fashion and image. The foundation of an outfit and makes a big difference in how a women looks. In order to increase the sales of Triumph and compete against competitor, a better understanding of consumers needs and wants and their satisfaction level about Triumph bra. Problem definition is defining and developing a decision statement and the steps that involved in translating it into more precise research terminology which include a set of research objectives. Triumph mission is to become the market leader in the industry which stated as We Are In To Win. In order to achieve high profitability, Triumph engaged in better understanding of consumers needs and wishes. Besides Triumph, there was many more variety type of brands which serve the same customers such as La Senza, XiXili, Wacoal, etc. So, the problem concerned by Triumph is What the management can do in order to increase the market share? They constantly carry out some research and introduce new design of bra which aims to exceed consumer expectations with variety design, more desirable, higher quality, and best fit products. Price range of Triumph bra can be the crucial factor that will influence consumer buying behavior. In this research project, we stated out the problem which should be concerned by Triumph should the price of the bra be changed? As we know, some of the users are more concerned on the quality level of Triumph instead of price. Thus, we conduct this project to find out the main concern of Triumphs user. The features of Triumph bra provided will directly link to customer satisfaction level. It can transform a customer either to become a loyalty customer or dissatisfied customers. Therefore, it is important to let Triumph understanding What is the satisfaction of consumers about the Triumph bra? Objective and Hypothesis The questionnaire we designed was mainly concern about the identification of satisfaction level of consumers toward Triumph bra and understanding the significant of price, quality, and other features of Triumph. The research objective is the main goal to be achieved by conducting research projects, the main objectives: In order to understand the various needs of consumers. To determine the satisfaction of consumers about Triumph bra. To determine the reason of consumers purchase the Triumph bra. To study the improvement of 4Ps needed to make to increase market share. To determine the potential improvement for Triumph bra. The questionnaire consists of ten questions which correspond with the objectives and hypotheses set to obtain the results expected. Hypothesis is the formal assumption statements which explain desirable outcome. The hypotheses of this research project are: The awareness of Triumph is high among the respondents. The comfortable of Triumph bra is the main concern for respondents. The customers are satisfied with the quality of Triumph bras. The customers are satisfied with the features and design of Triumph bras. The customers are not satisfied with the price of Triumph bras. Research Design In our research project, we choose to use exploratory and descriptive research methods to obtain the information needed to structure and respond to the problem definition. It will be conducted among students, office ladies and housewives where their age range start from below 20 years old, 21 to 30 years old and 31 to 40 years old. 1. Exploratory Research We decided to use exploratory research as our beginning stages to conduct our research project. The reason to conduct this research is because we do not have the prior knowledge about the problem situation of Triumph. It can help us to explore the nature of problem of Triumph and gain insight of solving the problem. Through the exploratory research, we can formulate and define the problem more precisely. Thus, it also helps us to gain the information about the purchase and consumption behavior of Triumph users. 2. Descriptive Research We use descriptive research to gain insight of the target market characteristic. First, we would want to know the respondent background such as their age and occupation. Second, we want to identify the consumers buying behavior and their consumption pattern toward Triumph bra. Third, we would want to figure out the awareness of Triumph bra. Thus, we had distributed the survey questionnaire to 100 respondents from various urban areas which include Wangsa Maju, Genting Klang and Sri Rampai. Survey Questionnaire Our questionnaire consists of 10 questions. For question 1 and 2, we will use ratio scale to classify the respondents frequency and money spends on purchasing a bra. From question 3 to 6, we will use the interval scale to identify the possible competitors brands, awareness of Triumph bra, the sources of respondents get to know about Triumph and the location of selling Triumph. Whereas, from question 7 to 9, we will use ordinal scale to indicate the relative extent of satisfaction, preferences and the concern factors of Triumph users. Lastly, question 10, we use nominal scale to determine the possibility of improvement needed to carry out by Triumph. (Refer to appendix) Sampling A sampling frame is a representative of the element of the target population. Our research project was only targeted at women where it included students, office ladies and housewives. Sampling frame Screening questionnaire will be given to 100 samples of bra users. The survey will be conducted in the area of Wangsa Maju, Genting Klang and Sri Rampai. Before this, a pilot study will be conducted to pretest the questionnaire on 20 respondents. Cost The estimated cost will incurred on this research project are as follow: Printing RM40 Paper RM10 Transportation RM10 Timing This research project will be adhered as the following schedule: Submission of research proposal Week 3 (11 to 16 October) Approval of proposal Week 4 (18 to 22 October) Preliminary design of questionnaire Week 5 (25 to 29 October) Pre-test of Questionnaire Week 6 (1 to 5 November) Field survey, tabulation, analysis of data and report preparation Week 7 to 9 (8 to 26 November) Submission of Marketing Research Report Week 10 (29 to 3 December) Marketing Research Presentation Week 11 and 12 (6 to 17 December) Data Analysis 1) Frequency of purchase The data analysis did not support that frequency of purchasing bra per year is low. Based on the survey, 44% of respondents purchase bras less than six months, 40% purchase less than one year, 9% purchase one year and above and only 7% purchase less than three months. Therefore, most of the respondents purchase bra less than six months. Significant at p

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Digital Forensic Computers Forensic Forensic Models Information Technology Essay

Digital Forensic Computers Forensic Forensic Models Information Technology Essay Today the increasing number of computer and electronics components has demanded the use of Digital forensic showing that the digital forensics can be implemented in specialized fields of law enforcement, computer security, and national defense. In the information technology period, information stored in the devices are digital as mostly the institution or organization use computer storage media as compare to paper used by writers, scholars, scientists, musicians, and public figures. This gives new challenges to these concern persons related to accessing and preserving information, data recovery and maintaining trust. In this article, review of the currently available investigation processes, methodologies, different tools used by forensics experts and finally a conclusion will be done. Keywords Digital Forensic, Computer Forensic, Forensic Models, Computer Forensic Investigation, Digital Forensic Methods, Forensic Techniques, Forensic Tools Introduction Digital forensics is the branch of forensic involving the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices due to incident of computer crime occurrence. Digital forensic is a synonym for the computer forensic in early start but today it includes other area of investigation like computer, database, and network, mobile which are capable of storing digital data. Due to much advancement in various types of technology devices, media, digital forensics has defined the sub branches according to the investigation required. One of the digital forensics branches are Computer forensics, Mobile device forensics, Network forensics, Forensic data analysis and Database forensics. Computer forensics involves the examination of the digital media stored in the computers for investigation purpose, mobile forensic is recovery of digital evidence from a mobile device, network forensic is the getting evidence related to network traffic, information gathering or evidence collection of intrusion detection, forensic data analysis is investigate the pattern of fraudulent action using structure data while the final one is database forensic is the study of databases and their metadata including the its contents, log files and in-RAM data investigation. When the computer forensic is in consideration usually three different sets of people from Law Enforcement agencies, Military, Business Industry are involved with the intention of tracking down attackers/hackers and criminals who attack the security of systems and use computers for unauthorized activities. Computer Forensic address the issues of National and Information Security, Corporate Espionage, White Collar Crime, Child Pornography, Traditional Crime, Incident Response, Employee Monitoring, Privacy Issues. In the following this paper start with investigation phases, methods and techniques and tools how this information helps the novice in the computer, network, mobile and database forensic. Forensic Methodologies à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ Phases of Computer Forensic Before discussing the forensic methodologies one should be familiar with the few terms of forensic terms. One of them is forensic evidence. A brief overview of evidence, categorization, rules, standard guide, and its basic principles in order to ensure the chain of custody will be outlined. Evidence is any item or information gathered at the scene of a crime, or at related locations, which is found to be relevant to an investigation. There are many different types of evidence, from DNA and tire marks, to bloodstains and fingerprints Evidence should be Admissible, Authentic, Complete, Reliable and Believable. Evidence chain of custody protects its integrity. It can be categorized as primary (best type evidence using documentation), secondary (Oral or eye witness), direct, conclusive, circumstantial, corroborative and opinion evidence. There are guides available for Computer Based Evidence e.g. By Association of Chief Police Officers. During evidence collection following principle should be strictly followed by investigator There should be no change of data on a computer or other media taken Person should be competent while accessing original data held on a target computer Audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based evidence should be created and preserved. He will ensure the law and principles of possession and access to information contained in a computer. So many forensic investigation processes have been developed till now. The objective in this paper is to make the forensic investigation process or model with common phases of forensic to perform the intended investigation as compared to others model. Few models that exist are mentioned below. Computer Forensic Investigative Process (1984) Abstract Digital Forensics Model (ADFM) (2002) Enhanced Digital Investigation Process Model (EDIP) (2004) Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM) (2006) Scientific Crime Scene Investigation Model (2001) Common Process Model for Incident and Computer Forensics (2007) Network Forensic Generic Process Model (2010) Here is the generic investigation process namely the Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model (GCFIM) proposed in this article that share the common phases with previously developed models. Figure below, demonstrate the proposed GCFIM. Model (GCFIM).JPG Pre Process is the first phase of Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model. In this phase the tasks are linked to other tasks that required to be completed before the investigating and collecting the official data. These tasks are having the required approval from concern authority, preparing and setting up of the tools to be utilized, etc. Acquisition and Preservation is the second phase of Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model. In this phase tasks performed related to the acquiring and collecting evidence in acceptable manner in which concern data is together base on the accepted methods utilizing a variety of recovery techniques, then the task is identifying the digital components from the acquired evidence, and finally in this phase the tasks are transporting, storing and preserving of data such as creating a good quality case management and ensuring an acceptable chain of custody. Overall, this phase is where all concern data are captured, stored and presented for the next phase. Analysis is the third phase of Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model. This is the core and the heart of the forensic investigation process. It has the largest part of phases including the tasks such as evidence tracing and validation, recovery of hidden or encrypted data, data mining, and timeline etc. Different types of analysis are performed on the acquired data using the appropriate tools and techniques to recognize the source of crime and eventually discovering the person accountable of the crime. Presentation is the fourth phase of Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model. The finding from analysis phase are documented and presented to the authority with expert testimony. The documentation presented also includes the adequate and acceptable evidence in order to understand by the concern party easily. The final outcome from this phase is either to prove or disprove the alleged criminal acts. Post-Process is the last phase of Generic Computer Forensic Investigation Model. This phase concerns only the appropriate finishing of the investigation work. Digital and physical evidence should be appropriately handed over to the authorize owner and kept in secure place, if required. Finally but not the last, if there is a need to review the investigative process in each phase it should be done for the perfection of the future investigations. Challenges during Forensic Investigation There are some technical, legal, resource as well as general and specific challenges during the investigators face. Technical challenges are faced in finding the criminals over the internet; legal challenges are the result of not competitive with the currently technology, social environment and structure while the challenges in resources that the support should be available in all levels. The challenges that are faced during computer forensic in general and specific are the tools or techniques limitation from the private sector, no standard definition and agreements of computer crime, no proper background availability to perform testing, huge number of Operating System platforms and file formats due to which unavailability of experts with true titles. Other than these challenges during investigation it may take large space of memory from Gigabytes to Terabytes or even may require the storage area network. For computer forensic expert it is also challenging to have the expertise in RA ID level, embedded system along with Network and Grid computing. Forensic Tools Now in the following few of the forensic tools in the domain of computer, network, mobile, database and some others are briefly described. Reason for Using Computer Forensics Tools There are multiple reasons for choosing the computer forensics tools like systems utilized by the defendants and litigants, to recover the lost data in case of hardware or software malfunction, to investigate about the computer usage in case of employee termination or when the system is attacked by an intruder. To investigate computer crimes different computer forensic tools like disk imaging software for the file structure and hard disk content can be used, for comparing the data between original and copy Hashing tools can be used which assigns unique number for violation verification and for recovery the lost data or deleted data recovery programs can be used. Similarly software and hardware write tools can be used to reconstruct the hard drive bit by bit as these tools generate the copy of hard disk. Encase is well know commercial tool that can perform various tasks like disk imaging and verification and analysis of data while PC Inspector File Recovery is a free tool helps in revealing and recovering the contents stored in any type of storage media that is connected with the computer even if the content is deleted. Network forensics Network forensics deals with the capture, recording or analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. There is a tool known as eMailTrackerPro that can track down the sender message by detecting the IP address in the header. If there is a need to view all information like IP address, country information or domain information SmartWhoIs can be used as free available network utility. To perform the web forensic famously known tool Mandiant Web Historian can help forensic examiner to verify how the intruders looked into the different sites by reviewing the history files of web site. Other tool Index.dat can be used to view the browsing history, the cookies and the cache as it gives the critical information about a cookie like its key-value pair, the website address associated with the cookie, the date/time the cookie was first created and last accessed and etc. Ethereal is network packet analyzer, WinPcap is the packet capture tool used to capture the packets and AirPcap is the packet capture tool for the IEEE 802.11b/g Wireless LAN interfaces. Mobile Forensics Mobile forensics as the name implies is to investigate data from mobile device for evidence purpose regardless of the mobile system of GSM / GPRS / WIFI technology. Investigator concentrate on either call data or SMS/Email data with the help of different commercial, non commercial, open source, command line or physical mobile forensic tools. The forensics process for mobile devices differ in these three main categories: seizure, acquisition, and examination/analysis while other aspects of the computer forensic process still apply. Some Commercial Forensic Tools include AccessDatas MPE+, FINALMobile Forensics by FINALDATA, Oxygen Forensic Suite, while Open source tools include iPhone Analyzer, the Mobile Internal Acquisition Tool, and TULP2G plug-ins. Performing mobile forensic using command line System commands, AT modem commands and Unix command dd can be used. Database Forensic Tools used for database forensic are ACL, Idea and Arbutus as it is the forensic study of databases and their metadata. These tools record action in the documented form about the forensic expert on the database as he uses database contents, log files and in-RAM data. Still there is need to do research in this field to perform database forensic that demands skill experts. Conclusion The information provided in this article helps the reader with basic understanding of digital forensic and its branches with the aim to do further research in specific area of this field. Different Forensic methodologies are outlined in order to give the choice to forensic expert to choose this methodology or design his own process model. Further the different tools especially the open source one can enhance the forensic expert skills. Today the technology is advancing very rapidly and developing skills in multiple areas enhances the professional career and money value of the individual.

Monday, August 19, 2019

A Technical Analysis of Ergonomics and Human Factors in Modern Flight D

I. Introduction Since the dawn of the aviation era, cockpit design has become increasingly complicated owing to the advent of new technologies enabling aircraft to fly farther and faster more efficiently than ever before. With greater workloads imposed on pilots as fleets modernize, the reality of he or she exceeding the workload limit has become manifest. Because of the unpredictable nature of man, this problem is impossible to eliminate completely. However, the instances of occurrence can be drastically reduced by examining the nature of man, how he operates in the cockpit, and what must be done by engineers to design a system in which man and machine are ideally interfaced. The latter point involves an in-depth analysis of system design with an emphasis on human factors, biomechanics, cockpit controls, and display systems. By analyzing these components of cockpit design, and determining which variables of each will yield the lowest errors, a system can be designed in which the Liveware-Hardware interface can promote safety and reduce mishap frequency. II. The History Of Human Factors in Cockpit Design The history of cockpit design can be traced as far back as the first balloon flights, where a barometer was used to measure altitude. The Wright brothers incorporated a string attached to the aircraft to indicate slips and skids (Hawkins, 241). However, the first real efforts towards human factors implementation in cockpit design began in the early 1930's. During this time, the United States Postal Service began flying aircraft in all-weather missions (Kane, 4:9). The greater reliance on instrumentation raised the question of where to put each display and control. However, not much attention was being focused on this area as engineers cared more about getting the instrument in the cockpit, than about how it would interface with the pilot (Sanders & McCormick, 739). In the mid- to late 1930's, the development of the first gyroscopic instruments forced engineers to make their first major human factors-related decision. Rudimentary situation indicators raised concern about whether the displays should reflect the view as seen from inside the cockpit, having the horizon move behind a fixed miniature airplane, or as it would be seen from outside the aircraft. Until the end of World War I, aircraft were manufactured .. ...anifest. The discussion of biomechanics in chapter three was purposely broad, because it is such a wide and diverse field. The concepts touched upon indicate the areas of concern that a designer must address before creating a cockpit that is ergonomically friendly in the physical sense. Controls and displays hold a little more relevance, because they are the fundamental control and feedback devices involved in controlling the aircraft. These were discussed in greater detail because many of those concepts never reach the conscious mind of the operator. Although awareness of these factors is not critical to safe aircraft operation, they do play a vital role in the subconscious mind of the pilot during critical operational phases under high stress. Because of the unpredictable nature of man, it would be foolish to assume a zero tolerance environment to potential errors like these, but further investigation into the design process, biomechanics, control and display devices may yield greater insight as far as causal factors is concerned. Armed with this knowledge, engineers can set out to build aircraft not only to transport people and material, but also to save lives.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Integration of Science and Religion Essay -- Philosophy Religion E

The Integration of Science and Religion At first glance, many facets of science and religion seem to be in direct conflict with each other. Because of this, I have generally kept them confined to separate spheres in my life. I have always thought that science is based on reason and cold, hard facts and is, therefore, objective. New ideas have to be proven many times by different people to be accepted by the wider scientific community, data and observations are taken with extreme precision, and through journal publications and papers, scientists are held accountable for the accuracy and integrity of their work. All of these factors contributed to my view of science as objective and completely truthful. Religion, on the other hand, always seems fairly subjective. Each person has their own personal relationship with God, and even though people often worship as a larger community with common core beliefs, it is fine for one person’s understanding of the Bible and God to be different from another’s. Another reason that Christianity seems so subjective is that it is centered around God, but we cannot rationally prove that He actually exists (nor is obtaining this proof of great interest to most Christians). There are also more concrete clashes, such as Genesis versus the big bang theory, evolution versus creationism, and the finality of death versus the Resurrection that led me to separate science and religion in my life. Upon closer examination, though, many of these apparent differences between science and Christianity disappeared or could at least be reconciled. After studying them more in depth, science and Christianity both seem less rigid and inflexible. It is now clear that intertwined with the data, logic, and laws of scien... ...eveloped, and especially during the Enlightenment, God and religion were relegated to a lesser role because it was thought that science could explain everything. Now, though, the farther we plunge into science, the more questions we find that can only be answered by religion. When science and Christianity are both studied and well understood, especially in the context of their limitations, it is possible to integrate them, or at least for them to complement each other, in my view of the world. Works Cited Armstrong, Karen. A History of God. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993. Armstrong, Karen. In the Beginning. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996. Barbour, Ian G. Religion and Science. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997. Maas, A.J. "Resurrection of Jesus Christ." New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. 20 April 2003 .

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Response to Essay Questions for Teaching Position in High-Needs School Essay

Instructions as stated on application: Answer each question in a short essay format (no more than 300 words); be sure to address all parts of each question. The answers to these questions are considered a critical part of your application. Please spend time crafting your answers and provide your responses to these application questions in the spaces below. (Be sure to identify each instruction, and frequently review to assure your work is acceptable.) Questions as stated on application: Briefly describe a time when you achieved a goal in the face of challenges (or while balancing multiple responsibilities). What specific steps did you take to ensure you would meet your goal, and how did you know you were successful? How will you apply that experience to set goals and measure your success in the classroom? Answer each question and its parts: (It is beneficial to examine each question rather than attempting to answer all at one time.) Question Part I: Briefly describe a time when you achieved a goal in the face of challenges (or while balancing multiple responsibilities). Answer Part I: As the 5th grade science teacher at a Title I school, I faced the daunting goal of preparing students for the state’s first mandated science exam. Challenges included classroom management, negative perceptions, unfamiliarity with subject matter, and a limited time frame. In order to grow professionally and proactively affect positive growth in the community, I assumed multiple responsibilities such as volunteering as a Girl Scout Leader; Nursing Home Volunteer; Children’s Programming Coordinator; and participating in a yearlong science educator professional development series. Nevertheless, my goal was important for our school and students. Question Part II: What specific steps did you take to ensure you would meet your goal, and how did you know you were successful? Answer Part II: I implemented small goals building upon one another to ensure a smooth pace for students. My first step was to build self-belief. Through guided lessons and student partnerships, insecurity was replaced with confidence. Secondly, I observed other teachers. Applying their techniques, managing students became easier. With confident students and a better classroom management style, we were ready for step three-organization. Using study guides, note-taking, routines, and procedures, lessons progressed students from the teacher-led model to a student-teacher cooperation. Setting smaller goals allowed easier progression for students and me. Question Part III: How will you apply that experience to set goals and measure your success in the classroom? Answer Part II: Our test scores were announced to the entire school because they were above average and the highest in our county, but it was students’ smiles and high-fives that satisfied my heart. Using the lessons learned from the experience, I am able to view challenges with confidence and assurance that the necessary investments of time, self-sacrifice, and hard work are well worth the satisfaction of achievement. In order to create continuous strides, I will continue to base my measurements in accordance with student needs. My highest priority is that each student feels safe, cared for, and respected, while other assessments such as chapter tests and class work continue to guide my pace allowing for improvements in my preparation and presentation.

Gps vs. Gis

GPS vs. GIS Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth. GPS is a constellation of twenty four satellites, each of which orbits Earth once every twelve hours. The U. S. Department of Defense operates and maintains these Global Positioning System satellites. Each satellite contains a high precision atomic clock and several transmitters that constantly send radio signals back to Earth. These signals communicate the satellite’s unique identification code, health, and position in space. Global Positioning Systems and base stations units in the fields receive these satellites and use them to calculate positions. All Global Positioning Systems receivers collect the locations of real world features (represented as points, lines or areas), and some can store descriptive data, or attributes, about these features. (1) Global positioning systems have been fully operational since April 27, 1995. GPS have become widely used worldwide, and a useful tool for map making, land surviving, commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance, and hobbies such as geocaching. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes and as a required time synchronization method for cellular network protocols . (2) Geographers find GPS to be particularly useful in coding the precise location of objects. That information can later be enters as a layer in geographic information systems. (2) Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date. 3) Geographic Information Systems allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A Geographic Information Systems helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. Geographic Information System technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework. GIS is most often as sociated with a map. A map, however, is only one way you can work with geographic data in a Geographic information System, and only one type of product generated by a GIS. A GIS can provide a great deal more problem-solving capabilities than using a simple mapping program or adding data to an online mapping tool. When GIS software was first created, it required powerful computers and extensive training. Now, anyone can develop a desktop map. (3) (1) www. gps. gov (2) http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/GPS (3) Rubenstein chapter 1

Friday, August 16, 2019

Social Needs Affecting The Development Of Skill And Capabilities In Relation To Social Roles And Responsibilities

During the last two decades,a convincing body of evidence has accumulated to indicate that unless children achieve minimal social competence by about the age of six years, they have a high probability of being at risk throughout life. Hartup suggests that peer relationships contribute a great deal to both social and cognitive development and to the effectiveness with which we function as adults (1992). He states that: â€Å"Indeed, the single best childhood predictor of adult adaptation is not IQ, not school grades, and not classroom behavior but, rather the adequacy with which the child gets along with other children.Children who are generally disliked, who are aggressive and disruptive, who are unable to sustain close relationships with other children, and who cannot establish a place for themselves in the peer culture are seriously at risk. † (Hartup, 1992). The capacity to communicate is the ability and desire to connect with others by exchanging ideas and feelings, both v erbally and non-verbally. Most children learn to communicate to get a need met or to establish and maintain interaction with a loved adult.The child’s ability to communicate is critical in the developmental process where in when left unattended can cause damaging effect evident as the child struggles through adulthood. Children who are unable to communicate may in turn be unable to form close or satisfying relationships with peers and definitely should be of concern to parents and teachers alike. For one thing, these children miss out on opportunities to learn social skills that will be important throughout their lives. (Asher and others 1982). Children who lack ongoing peer involvements also may miss opportunities to build a sense of social self-confidence.These children may develop little faith in their own abilities to achieve interpersonal goals and, thus, are easily overwhelmed by the normal ups and downs of social interaction. Implications for the children's future soci al and professional adjustments are obvious. Problem solving skills are also contributory in the learning process that can affect child’s diverse role in his search for answers. By exploring social relationships, manipulating objects, and interacting with people, children are able to formulate ideas, try these ideas out, and accept or reject what they learn.Constructing knowledge by making mistakes is part of the natural process of problem solving. Through exploring, then experimenting, trying out a hypothesis, and finally, solving problems, children make learning personal and meaningful. Piaget states that children understand only what they discover or invent themselves. It is this discovery within the problem solving process that is the vehicle for children's learning. This discovery process allows children to construct their own learnings.Most problems have more than one solution; some problems cannot be solved. Experiences with these sorts of problems promote learning in young children. (Britz, 1992) Development of sound moral decision is also a skill which is considered important as our life's path is controlled or based on what we see as right and wrong. Lawrence Kohlberg's ideas of moral development are based on the premise that at birth, all humans are void of morals, ethics, and honesty. He identified the family as the first source of values and moral development for an individual.He believed that as one's intelligence and ability to interact with others matures, so does one's patterns of moral behavior (Woolfolk, 1993). Environment's role in the development of communication skills, problem-solving and making sound good judgment The life of a child can be affected by how he interacts in two different worlds common to him, which is the home and the school. Family Environment Child rearing practices are especially critical. In the terms of family policy dominant in the culture of North America, children are usually raised in ways that encourage t hem to become self-reliant and independent.Children are often allowed to act somewhat like equals to their parents. For instance, they are included in making decisions about what type of food and entertainment the family will have on a night out. Children are given allowances and small jobs around the house to teach them how to be responsible for themselves. In contrast, children in China are usually encouraged to think and act as a member of their family and to suppress their own wishes when they are in conflict with the needs of the family.Independence and self-reliance are viewed as an indication of family failure and are discouraged. It is not surprising that Chinese children traditionally have not been allowed to act as equals to their parents. (O'Neal, 2002) The way parent's react to external influences is important because they help design the first blueprint for their children's sense of self through the behavior they model. How they act, feel, and think is crucial, because their children see them as a reflection of the outside world-as a glimpse into what they'll be like when they grow up. Medhus, 2002)It all started with our need to communicate. It is very much vital in achieving our social needs as well as physiological needs.. It has been stated that during infancy when one starts to communicate his need we should be able to respond to it in a timely manner for this will definitely affect the child's psychologically, and will then affect his social skills having difficuty to trust people. Erik erikson proposed that the concept of trust versus mistrust is present throughout an individual's entire life.Therefore if the concept is not addressed, taught and handled properly during infancy (when it is first introduced), the individual may be negatively affected and never fully immerse themselves in the world. For example, a person may hide themselves from the outside world and be unable to form healthy and long-lasting relationships with others, or even themselves. If an individual does not learn to trust themselves, others and the world around them then they may lose the virtue of hope, which is directly linked to this concept.If a person loses their main belief in hope they will struggle with overcoming hard times and failures in their lives, and may never fully recover from them. This would prevent them from learning and maturing into a fully-developed person if the concept of trust versus mistrust was improperly learned, understood and used in all aspects of their lives. (1950) In order to develop the child's ability to communicate, it should start from person where in he can establish contact easily.A family environment that promotes communication like talking and listening to each other help is essential for him to for the development of his social skills which will determine how he would interact with the world outside as he grew up. Parents who communicate effectively with their children such children know what to expect f rom their parents, and once children know what is expected of them, they are more likely to live up to these expectations. They are also more likely to feel secure in their position in the family, and are thus more likely to be cooperative. ( Zolten and Long,1997)Relationships between parents and their children are greatly improved when there is effective communication taking place. They believe that these adults will nurture and protect them, unless repeated experience teaches them otherwise. When children form secure attachments, their development tends to flourish. Long-term studies show that children who have secure attachments early in life make better social adjustments as they grow up, and do better in school. ( Teo and others, 1996, p. 285) The family evironment should also be a place where growth is allowed and not restricted.Mistakes should not be considered as failure. If this happens the child's exploration will be limited for the fear of comiting mistakes. This will eve ntually help build up the child's self-esteem. Children with good self-esteem do better in school, act independently but enjoy group interaction, respond appropriately to peer-pressure, take pride in their accomplishments, tolerate frustration, try new tasks, and offer help to others. Therefore one way to help your children have self-esteem is to begin building your own.However, unreasonable parental control or domination being execised as a family environment may inhibit the development of the skills or capabilities of a person. Over centuries, parents have been brainwashed into believing that the best way to raise children is to exert control by using size and experience to their advantage. The basic premise is that, if we choose to twist our children's arms into becoming the adults we want them to be rather than coach and guide them to making choices for themselves, we're setting them up to be like us: externally directed.Physical punishment also does much to discourage self-dire ction. Many parents feel that spankings are vital to raising an obedient child, while others, drowning in the pressures of the day, simply lose control and, in the heat of the moment, fail to see an alternative. Either approach has two unfortunate effects. First, it teaches our children that violence is an acceptable solution to many of their conflicts. Second, it tells children that they are inferior beings who need to be dominated and oppressed. (Medhus, 2002) Classroom environmentResearch on work and home environments has shown that there can be a strong relationship between social settings and short and long-term emotional well-being. Considering how much time most children spend at school, psycho-social dimensions of schools have sparked the interest of a growing number of researchers concerned with school effectiveness and the emotional well-being of young people. The ‘climate’ of a school has been identified as one of the most important features of a good school. At its best,the school should be a caring, happy and safe environment in which to work and play.Where the atmosphere in a school is uncaring, unsupportive and unrewarding, the mental health, as well as the work of pupils and teachers, can be adversely affected. The impact of this unfriendly atmosphere is particularly damaging if it persists for many years. The role of the teacher includes taking care of his/her students' psychological welfare. In a school that scores high in this quality area, teachers and pupils feel valued. Parents are interested and supportive. They believe they have a role in the school and see reasons to give their support.At another level, it is about effective and sensitive communication: not only teachers providing appropriate, constructive feedback about the child’s work and giving encouragement but also pupils giving positive feedback to other pupils and to the teachers themselves. Through a greater attachment and sense of belonging, the school bec omes a place where boys and girls want to be. Promoting small group work in class and ongoing co-operative contact between pupils is central to creating a more child-friendly atmosphere.It can reduce stereotyping and improve relations between children from different social and ethnic groups. When students co-operate, the winners and losers are less obvious and subsequent humiliation for the losers is avoided. Students who participate in class are less likely to feel alienated from school. Alienation brings increased risks to mental and physical health. Active learning can help students to develop problem solving skills. In research where children have been left alone to play their own games, it has been found that children naturally develop agreements about egalitarian rules.They themselves see the intrinsic importance of sharing and co-operation, so it is possible to harness some of this potential. Showing boys and girls the value of cooperation encourages co-operative behaviour in situations and places outside the school setting, so that the family and community also benefit. Physical punishment of children in schools is unnecessary and unacceptable for good mental health and sound education. This is a contentious issue because in some cultures violence against students, in the form of corporal punishment, may be legally sanctioned, while in other cultures it may be viewed as a form of child abuse.Corporal punishment is unnecessary because it does not work; it suppresses undesirable behaviour for only a short period of time, and creates an atmosphere of fear that is counterproductive to learning. Aggression and deviant behaviour among children in school can, in turn, lead teachers to be fearful about their own personal safety. Harsh treatment of students is associated with high rates of mental health problems including substance abuse later in adulthood.There is growing evidence that discipline is not only derived from rules, punishment and external control, it is also learned from rewards and encouragement, and from consequences that are fair, firm and clearly communicated. Schools should strive for a school environment with a balance of warmth, positive interest and involvement from adults on the one hand, and the enforcement of firm limits to unacceptable behaviour, on the other. Where limitations and rules are violated, non-hostile, non-physical sanctions should be consistently applied. (Skevington, 1999) Adults at school and home must also act as authority figures in some respects.Having clear, fair rules and applying them consistently, is vital to good order. Children and adolescent themselves often agree that a good reason for having discipline is to make the home and school a safe place and can be encouraged to share the responsibility. It is very important that the environment where we interact with teaches us to communicate for us to ask questions and clarify things and will eventually come up to think of possible actions tow ards situations through problem solving skills and end up with a good moral decision that will guide us in dealing with our social roles and responsibilities.