Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Organizational managers are change management tools that are critical for implementing change within organization endeavoring to changing from one level to another in line with an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic vision. Therefore their roles coupled with appropriate skills and experiences are critical to successful change over.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Successful Implementation of the Change Process specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among the requirements for a manager to initiate and successfully transform an organization is a clear and unambiguous understanding of the current position of an organization, the reasons for initiating change, understand organizational environment in terms of the culture, organizational behavior, processes involved in the change process, and the relationship between employees, the organization, and management (Harris Moran, 1987). An organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ environment must be assessed before commencing change. Managers must ensure change plans are well designed and the implementation accurately done to give a satisfactory feedback when an evaluation is conducted of the new look organizations (Christensen Donovan n.d). Equipped with the skills highlighted above, an organizational manager plays various roles in the transformation process. Among these is creating the need for urgent change within an organization. Urgency should be characterized by reality and relevance. When organizational employees see the need for change and associated relevance, the resistance to change is minimized and workforce energy is efficiently optimized in bringing about change. Hall and Hall (1990) argue that managers should understand that change can be emotional and may impact adversely on organizational employees. In addition to that, organizational executives understand that change cannot be imitated single handedly or through management orders, therefore they unde rstand the value of team work. The next role of a manager bringing about change is to create a team to effect the changes. When people work as a team, the synergistic model indicates that better organizational transformations can be achieved in a short period. In addition to that, team work enhances employee productivity and oneness of purpose in initiating change. The created team should incorporate people of various experiences and skills to ensure successful transformations. The next role is establishing a clear vision that clearly communicates to both management, organizational stakeholders, and employees the next level the organization will be transformed to. Each stakeholder is interested in the gains that could be made at personal and organizational levels. Stakeholders would like to understand if the transformation is worth their involvements and accruing benefits. In addition to that, employee should be made to focus their energies towards achieving organizational success i n the transformation process.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another role is communication. A well experienced and sanguine manager wanting to see the transformation process a success communicates the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy in a language that stirs employee and stakeholder involvement in the change process. The manager establishes efficient communication networks through which feedback can be received and employee attitude and stakeholder behavior can be monitored and evaluated. Managers with unrivaled keenness of understanding know well that communication is a component that drives change to higher levels of success or bring about resistance to change. Empowering action is one of the critical roles of a manager. When change has been identified as the way for an organization, various obstacles may hinder the change management process. Managers need to desig n plans and strategies for removing any could be an obstacle in the change process to empower action by organizational employees. Obstacles can be removed by rewarding change and progress and at times using other contingency measures that may be deemed appropriate. A manager adept at initiating and driving organizational change creates a aims and objectives that are achievable in the short term. These short term goals should be manageable not to overwhelm employees and the management in initiating and implementing change. These may also be referred to as short term wins. Besides the above roles, a manager should not let up on the drive to bring about change. Rather, the executive should encourage persistence and continuous change progress in the change process. Once change has been introduced into organizations, managers should make change stay. Employees and stakeholders may develop the tendency to revert to old ways if the newly implemented change does not augur well with them. In addition to that, benefits may not be realized immediately. Therefore, a manager should continuously reinforce values and a culture in the new look organization by inculcating new behavior in the organization. To achieve these, a manager may give promotions, conduct new recruitments, and provide new leaders among a host of other strategies (Murphy Conrad, 1994).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Successful Implementation of the Change Process specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Handling staff resistance Since time immemorial, change has always come with resistance. Organizations meet staff resistance at various levels. However, it is a critical role for the manager to efficiently handle such resistance and transform an organization to a different level. Resistance may be due to fear of losing certain benefits, positions, jobs, status quo, conflicts, disruption, peer pressure, mistrust, and other related po sitions. In such an environment, managers should incorporate the element of a Ã¢â¬Å"learning managerÃ¢â¬ . A learning manager draws from the experience of other organizations and incorporates the best techniques and experience in handling staff in the transformation process. To effectively handle employee resistance to change, managers should educate staff in clear and unambiguous terms on what to expect in this stage, prepare employees to confront the upcoming situation with realty, and educate them to realize that change is inevitable and the organization is bound to take on a new look. In addition to that, managers who value their staff use various techniques to prepare the staff emotionally confront the new environment. A well prepared does not fight change but embraces as a tool that has come at its own time (Christensen Donovan, n.d). The change Process A number of terms used in the change process include assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation are defined her eunder. Assessment: Is the act of evaluating the nature, quality, or significance of the proposed change in terms of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic vision. Planning: The process of scheduling change process goals, defining task requirements for achieving these goals in line with an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s change strategy.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implementation: It is an institutionalized stepwise metric for monitoring the bringing about organizational changes in a defined way. Well implemented change remains consistent with organizational objectives and strategic vision. Evaluation: Is a measure used to determine the employee performance and organizational success in implementing change. Evaluations provide accurate information that is used as a benchmark in appraising the change process. Therefore successful implementation of the change process is a collective effort by managers, employees, and stakeholders which should be conducted with a keenness of purpose to attract all stakeholder involvement in the process to effectively bring about the desired change in line with an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic vision. References Christensen C. M. and Donovan T. (n.d). The process of strategy development andÃ Implementation.Ã Web. Hall, E. T. Hall, M. R. (1990). Hidden Differences: Doing Business withÃ the Japanese, New Y ork: Doubleday Anchor Books. Harris, P. R. Moran, R. T. (1987). Managing Cultural Differences,Ã Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. Murphy, S. E Conrad, L. (1994). The Role of Team Leaders in a TQMÃ Environment. Human Resource Professional 7 (4). 15-19. This research paper on Successful Implementation of the Change Process was written and submitted by user Beau Payne to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Life, sadness and happiness Research Paper Example Life, sadness and happiness Paper Life, sadness and happiness Paper Essay Topic: Life Of Pi Like there are two sides of a coin, there are two sides of life, sadness and happiness. Happiness cherishes your life whilst sadness brings terrible storms without any calamity. Sometimes when our lives are full of joy we forget that grief is also a major share in life. Keeping a balance of happiness and sadness is important to realise what is right and wrong.Ã A catastrophic storm also took place in my life and covered it completely for a long period of time. On the 24th of August, 2003, death snatched a very important person from me, my beloved grandfather. He was an immense inspiration in my life and watching him die in front of my own eyes was very painful. My grandfather was a great man who had worked really hard all his prestigious life. He had always lived with his head up high and was loved by everyone. My grandfather had cancer, enemy of life, for the past two years but he did not know that death was crawling on him like a sly fox. Three years ago my grandfather came with the hope that life will win over death, from Pakistan, to get treated for his illness. My grandfather, who was unaware of the fact that he had cancer, was living happily until one day he had terrible pain in his bladder. My dad rushed him to hospital and the doctors declared that it was just a minor infection and sent him home with antibiotics. Later on that month his pain increased rather than decreasing. Going to the toilet was equivalent to hell. My dad then got him treated in a private hospital. After many blood tests and observations, the doctors came to the conclusion that he had cancer in his bladder. Doctors also explained to dad that grandpa was going to live for only a few days. From that day dad made sure that grandpa did not learn about his vicious illness at such an old age. My dad came home that day with a burden on his heart. The only aim in my dads life was to give his dad as much happiness as possible. When I came to discover this fact, the sky and earth became one and I felt as if I was being crushed in between them. A week later the cancer in his bladder cautiously grew up his windpipe and then into his mouth. He described his pain as, heavy burning. He told us that whenever he sat up, the weight of is illness pressed him down until he got breathless, he gave up and lay back down as a living corpse. I still remember that day when my grandfather became so ill that he was unable to eat anything. He had to drink milk with added vitamins. By this time everyone was aware of the fact that he had cancer and my grandfather also knew that death was knocking at his door. After seeing him unable to move, talk or consume I felt like the most helpless person ever. I locked myself in the room that day and cried my heart out. I was really upset. I felt like waking him up, holding his hand and talking to him but unfortunately my wish stayed unheard forever. My dad called the doctor, when my grandfather was in his last stage. The doctor said that he only has a few moments and advised my dad to invite all his siblings to see their father taking his last breath. Shortly a couple of nurses came and injected morphine into his blood to ease his death. After watching my grandfather in his room with everyone else I came downstairs for a bite to eat. I drank a glass of water but my mouth still felt as dry as the desert. My humble feet made way upstairs. I was half way up when I heard screams of pain. I ran up the steps taking 4 at a time. And there I saw my grandfather taking his last breaths, fighting between life and death. He died; he was no longer alive. At that moment I felt like taking all the life out of myself and giving it to grandpa. I slowly walked over to him with my eyes swollen up from crying. I touched his hand very slowly; I could feel the warm blood still running in his veins. His face looked like an innocent child with a light smile on his dry lips. Next morning, morning which brings light into everybodys lives only brought darkness to my grandfathers life. It was his funeral. All of our relatives headed towards Central Mosque and so did I, where I saw my grandfather for the last time in his coffin which has become his home now. I remember trying to console my parents but it did not work. Watching my dad cry, who was such a strong man, shattered me into a million pieces. Even today when I remember my grandfathers death, my eyes moist and tears dribble down my face. My grandpa was a very important person in my life, even more than my parents and maybe thats why I got a sudden shock from his death. In a way I was relieved that he died because it cured him from his moment to moment pain. I learnt a lot of memorable words from my grandpa, Life is too short, live it before it ends. At that time I never took his words seriously but now these same words have become so important and meaningful to me. That incident has become the most heartbreaking moment of my life, and I am sure that I will never experience anything as drastic as that.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Accounting Project - Research Paper Example The company has its headquarters in Englewood, Colorado and being the third largest broadcasting company in the US it is serving to more than 13.9 million customers throughout the US. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s President and CEO is Mr. Charles W. Ergen and the company employs more than 26,000 employees throughout its distribution network in the US. Before FY 2008 the company has two separate reporting segments namely DISH Network and EchoStar Technologies Corporation. However, after restructuring of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets a separate publicly traded company EchoStar Corporation (EchoStar) was formed where as the company became a single reportable segment that is DISH Network with its business as provider of a DBS (direct broadcast satellite) subscription television service in the US. The company provides complete solution through receiver systems and programming to its customers which offer a large number of video and radio channels. The product / service supply chain comprises of direct sales channels, independent retailers such as small satellite retailers, direct marketing groups, local and regional consumer electronics stores and nationwide retailers and even telecommunications companies (DataMonitor). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s major competitors include AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation, Cox Communication, Inc., Time Warner, Inc. and TiVO Inc. etc. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s total current assets were $6,460,047 and total liabilities $8,409,153 as of December 2008. In the same period the company had a negative shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity of $1,949,106. During the year ending December 2008 (FY 2008) the company has recorded sales revenues of $11,617.2 million. The company was able to post an operating profit of $2,056.2 million in FY2008, while its net profit was $902.9 million in FY2008. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating activities generated a cash inflow of $2,188 million whereas cash out flows from investing activities and financial activities were $1,597 million and $1,411 million respectively.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Is social media really serving the purpose of making people more sociable or is it creating an introverted generation - Essay Example Thus social media usage is creating an introverted generation that consists of people who often strive to shrink into themselves and stop taking part in constant social media interactions. The very first reason why people become introverts by constant using of social media is because it is always easier to communicate when nobody watches you. In fact this means that it is certain anonymity and opportunity to dissimulate feelings and personal features during communication, what makes people feel freely while communicating through social media services more than in real life situations. A famous psychologist Phillip Zimbardo defined anonymity as a crucial factor that triggers human feeling of freedom from social responsibility, which often leads to negative consequences (255). Furthermore, social media allows people to create some false personalities and identify themselves with persons different from who they really are. Thus it turns out that people start alienating from themselves and later this may cause certain communicational disability, social anxiety, and even asceticism. For most people exposure of the personalities that they use as masks in social media commun ication would become a social catastrophe; thus, for instance, Facebook privacy breaches have without a doubt become a nightmare for its users. The fear of losing social media privacy has led to appearance of cyber bullying, which is a huge problem nowadays. Social media bullies play on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency on social media images, so they often manipulate people by creating breaches in their social networking profilesÃ¢â¬â¢ security. Also, cyber bullying contributes to development of introspective tendencies of modern social media generation. Researches on the topic of cyber bullying revealed that cyber bullying not only makes people (more often adolescents)
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Ethics and the Airlines - Research Paper Example Organizations that fail to comply may be subjected to huge fines or other more severe consequences. Aviation stakeholders have fallen victim to violations of safety regulations among several carriers over the years. In 2007, the Federal Aviation Administration found that Southwest Airlines had not complied with safety regulations. The organization has gone for a record 59,000 flights without carrying out the proper inspections required for such flights. After realizing this problem, FAA officers augmented the problem by failing to report it and suppressing other similar evidence. It was only through interventions by two whistleblowers that the matter was put under investigation. A settlement was reached 3 years later, and the company had to pay 7.5 million dollars for flying unfit consumer airplanes. The above incident is one of many that have occurred over the past 7 years; another one involved American Airlines. In 2008 it was found that the organization had also not carried out maintenance of their aircrafts. They had put many passengers at risk and were required to pay a hefty sum of $ 15 million. Hawaiian Airlines was the most recent one, and can be a suitable case study for ethics and safety issues in aviation. In an FAA press release, it was announced that Hawaiian Airlines had been operating a Boeing 767-300 flight without conducting proper inspections of the parts. These requirements were outlined in a 2000 airworthiness direct (AD). This error was detected by the FAA in 2012 when the AirlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ documents indicated that the particular AD under consideration was not applicable to the company. Approximately 5,000 flights had occurred on the flight without these inspections. Statutory and legal directives are highly critical in the aviation industry because without them, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives could be placed at risks. Airworthiness directives are
Friday, November 15, 2019
Causes And Effects Of Deforestation Sociology Essay Laurance (1999) stated that Tropical forests do far more than sustain biodiversity; they are homes to indigenous peoples, pharmacopeias of natural products, and provide vital ecosystem services, such as flood amelioration and soil conservation (p. 109). This shows that forest is very important to us but deforestation is causing all the forest to be cleared. What is deforestation? Deforestation is the act of cutting down all the trees in a particular area. Deforestation is carried out for some reasons. These reasons could be categorized into legal deforestation and illegal deforestation. Tropical forest takes up about six percent of the earth and a lot of problems could occur when all the trees are cut down. To this day, people are still debating on whether deforestation is appropriate or not. What are the causes and effects of deforestation? What is happening to the tropical rainforest now? We have always read news about Indonesia and the occurrence of forest burning almost every year. Why are they doing it? It had been reported that they burn the forests so that they will have a better land to plant palm oil. It acts as a fertilizer to the land because their plants died and converted into fertilizer. Even thought they did it to fertilize the land but it brought harm to the people who live around the country. Air pollution often happens in Malaysia because hazes are formed due to forest burning in Indonesia. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that causes the air around it to be misty and blurry. It brings harm to the people that inhale it. Therefore, the rate of people receiving treatment for illnesses caused by inhalation of haze increases every year. This shows that deforestation is causing a lot of effects on mankind and it is often shown on advertisement and newspaper; however, it seems that people are still not aware of the effects of deforestation. This research paper is discusses about the causes and effects of deforestation around the world. Many people are more aware of the effects than the causes of deforestation. This research paper is going to talk about the causes and effects of deforestation. Besides discussing the causes and effects of deforestation, this paper also argues about what can be done to save the forest too. Causes of deforestation One of the most common causes of deforestation is clearing out the forest to pay back the foreign debt of that particular country (Culas, 2006). Some country has a huge sum of foreign debt and they dont the capability to clear their debt; thus they clear out the forests so that the land they acquire later could be used for crop production. By planting crops that could be exported to another country, they could earn a lot and repay back their debt. This is why most countries choose to clear forests and focus on agricultural purposes. Countries that do not owe other countries any debt are less likely to take up deforestation or will have a lower rate of deforestation. Therefore, countries that are in a heavy debt should look for alternative ways that could gain them a better income instead of clearing up the forests. As I have mentioned earlier, tropical forests only takes up about 6 percent of the whole earth. If these countries continue to clear up the forests without thinking of the consequences, the amount of forests left on the surface of the earth would seriously decline. Another cause of deforestation is the increasing demand of land. Due to the increase of human population, certain countries are also experiencing an increase in the demand for houses. This leads to developers seeking more land to build houses on. Hence, developers clear up forests after forests so that the land they acquire could be used to build houses. Through the development of houses on forest land, they can sustain the population in that country. We dont have to look at other country. We just need to take a look at our own country, Malaysia. Forests in Setapak area were cleared up to build condominiums. Malaysia has the population of over millions and the demand for houses is very high. They choose to clear up the forests so that there would be more land to build apartments, condominiums, terrace houses and other housing structures. This shows that deforestation is the first option when it comes to fulfilling the demand for land. Besides fulfilling the demand of houses, the dema nd of oil has also leads to deforestation. Oil is widely used everywhere in the world now. When the demand for oil increases, lands are also needed for oil plantation. The absence of land made oil plantation a difficult task; hence, deforestation becomes the option again to gain lands. Trees were chopped down and the land is then used to plant oil palm so the demand for palm oil could be met. Besides meeting the demand of land, the weakness shown in the governments policies is also one of the causes for deforestation (Laurance, 1999). Ever since we were kids, we were always taught that there are rules when it comes to cutting down trees. Despite that, many people continue to violate the rules and continue to do illegal logging. Why is it that people constantly neglect the boundaries set up by the government and commit illegal loggings? This is because of the governments weak policies. Rules and boundaries were set by the government but there were no enforcement. Law enforcers are not strict and often neglect their duty when it comes to punishing individuals for violating the rules. For example, the law enforcers just releases those who have violated the laws despite catching them and witnessing them doing illegal logging. This does not help reduce deforestation but rather makes the matter worse. People will think that it is fine to do illegal logging since the law enforce rs, such as police officers, do not arrest those who violated the rules in spite of their crime. Such acts by those who work for the government will only promote further deforestation instead of stopping them. Soon, the trees in the country will gradually disappear. The effects of deforestation What are the effects of deforestation? One of the effects of deforestation includes affecting the habitat of the indigenous people. When deforestation happens, it gravely affects the indigenous people because deforestation contributes to death, illness, poorness, and culturl shock (Mitten, 1997). The indigenous people who live in forests seek their food from the forests and deforestation terminates their only means to acquire food. In addition, logging activities have become an easy way to earn money. Therefore, all the companies build their factory near the rivers. The waste products that were made while processing forest products would be dumped into the river; thus, polluting it. Indigenous people drink water from the river. As a result, they will get sick because of the dirty water caused by the factories. It can even cause deaths if it gets too serious. Besides that, the culture of the indigenous people that has been passed down from generations to generations will soon vanish w hen the indigenous people slowly decreases due to death. Cultural shock will occur and the history of the indigenous people will soon be forgotten. Besides harming the indigenous people, deforestation harms the wildlife too (Bonaudo, Pendu, Faure, Quanz, 2005). This is because around 80 to 90 percent of animal species live in the tropical rainforest. Imagine if all the trees were cut down, what will happen to the animal? It is without a doubt that the animals will lose their natural habitat and they will become extinct. Animals, such as pandas, refuse to breed when they are not in their own natural habitat. Therefore, the population if panda keeps decreasing as time goes by because their natural habitat is being destroyed due to deforestation. When deforestation happens, the animals lose their natural habitats and also their protective shield. This causes the animals to have some difficulty adapting to their new environment and as a result, the animals would refuse to breed. The extinction of these animals is guaranteed if they refuse to breed due to the destruction of their natural habitat. Our future generation will have to l ook at pictures or visit the museums in order to the animal instead of just looking at the animals in real life. Deforestation will soon cause the future generation to lose touch with the animals that exist now and they will only know them through knowledge passed down by their parents or by visiting a museum. Another effect of deforestation is climate change. Bala, Caldeira, Wickett, Phillips, Lobell, Delire, Mirin, (2006) stated that deforestation affects the global climate by releasing the carbon stored in the living plants and soils as well as by altering the physical properties of the planetary surface (p. 6550). Trees take in carbon dioxide that is released by human through respiration. Trees stored carbon dioxide to produce their own food through photosynthesis process. When the trees are all cut down, there will not be any more trees to absorb the carbon dioxide that is released by humans. Carbon dioxide will then be trapped at the atmosphere and temperature will increase. As the carbon dioxide in the air increases severely, so does the temperature. This will results in the phenomena known as global warming. When global warming happens, ice in the North Pole and South Pole will melt. This will result in an increase of sea level. The increase in the sea level will flood countries t hat are geographically situated in a lower sea level and these countries will disappear from the surface of the earth. Soon, all the land will be flooded and the countries will disappear one by one. What can be done? Deforestation has caused a lot of harm to the mankind. There are a number of actions that could be taken to reduce deforestation. For example, instead of cutting down trees to acquire new land, we can perform land reclamation. Land reclamation involves the creation of new lands from oceans or riverbeds. Besides that, government should enforce the rules instead of handling the matters leniently. The people who violate the rules should be fined or prosecuted. This serves as a warning to others so that they will stop their illegal logging and this could help save and preserves the trees around us. Every country should preserve their forests and plant more trees so that the biodiversity could be maintained. Discussion All in all, deforestation has caused a lot of devastating effects not only to the people but also the animals. Before understanding the effects, we need to find the roots of why deforestation happens first. As I have stated earlier, the causes of deforestation are the large sum of foreign debt, the increasing demand for land, and the weakness in the governments policies. Deforestation happens because the trees were cut down for crop production. With the production, they could repay back the debt. Besides that, the demand for land gradually increases as time goes by. This is because the increase in popularity has increased the demand of land to build houses. Moreover, the weaknesses in the policies promote deforestation instead of curbing them. This occurs because the government did not enforce the rules that were set and they did not take illegal deforestation seriously. Deforestation has done a lot of harm to the people and also to the wildlife. The most common effect is causing harm to indigenous people. Indigenous people live in forests and everything they do inside the forest is part of their culture. Deforestation causes the indigenous people will lose their home as well as their source for food. Deforestation will cause their culture to extinct sooner or later. The most precious aspect in a country is its original culture. If the indigenous people are extinct, there will be no more culture for that particular country. Besides harming the indigenous people, deforestation harms wildlife too. Most of the animal species live in the tropical forest. Not only does it act as a natural habitat for the animals, forests also act as a protective shield for the animals. When deforestation occurs, they lose their natural habitat and protective shield. Soon, they will be on the edge of extinction. When this happen, it will cause a loss in biodiversity and ou r future generation will have to know the animals through pictures. Another effect of deforestation is climate change. Trees act as storages for carbon dioxide that are released by humans through respiration. Trees absorb carbon dioxide for their photosynthesis process. If the trees were cut down, all the carbon dioxide will be released to the atmosphere and this will cause the temperature to increase. An increase in the temperature will result in global warming and global warming; in turn, melts the ice in the North and South Pole. This results in an increase of sea level. Therefore, lands that are positioned in a lower sea level will soon be flooded and disappear from the surface of the earth. After understanding the causes and effects, what can be done to curb deforestation? Every government should find another alternative way to boost their economy and repay back the foreign debt. Instead of cutting down the trees for crop production, they can try boosting the economy through the tourism section. This way, they can save the forest and gain profits at the same thing. Besides cutting down trees for more land, land reclamation can be taken to acquire more land. These methods are able to fulfill the demands for land as well as preserve the forest at the same time. Governments should also enforce the rules that were set for logging activities. People who violate the rules by carrying out the illegal logging act musr be fined or prosecuted. This acts as a warning to others so that they do not dare to do it again. Besides that, government could come out with other ways of punishing the people that violates the rules. As an overall, they must enforce the laws and regulations on environmental issues. Conclusion I chose to do this research on deforestation because I have read a lot of news on how deforestation do us harm and yet no one has done anything to stop it. I hope that this research paper could help people to do understand more on the causes and effects of deforestation. Besides that, I also hope this research will help curb deforestation and save the trees from being logged. By doing so, the biodiversity of the earth could be maintained and no harm would befall on humans. If deforestation continues to happen, there will be no more trees in the future. This will result in higher temperature, loss of biodiversity and more. Therefore I hope everybody will do his or her part in preserving and protecting the forest so that there is a better future for our next generation.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Evolution of Lilith The first appearance of Lilith came in the form of a cameo in a story called the "Prologue of Gilgamesh". In it, a great tree is described, obviously the tree of life. On the top of a tree rests a bird, possibly an eagle, and in the center lives a "dragon[who] had build it's nest there...the demon Lilith..." This can be equated with the Midguard Serpent of Norse mythology and various other chaos creatures who lived and gnawed on the Tree of Life. The purpose these entities served was one of balancing the Yang with the Yin, tempering the force of Creation with the force of Destruction, order with chaos, as one cannot exist without the other. Thus Lilith, and other so-called "serpents" served an important purpose, that of keeping the Yang under control, and thus also serving a psychological purpose. When one rests too much in the light, one can develop a self-righteous attitude, and starts to think that they know everything. This was the true nature of the state Adam and Eve were in before the serpent in the garden, who was Lilith as we shall later see, were in....Adam and Eve had the false sense of security that they knew everything there was to know and carried within them the forces of creation (Yang). Lilith, on the other hand, who was the personification of Yin brought them down to earth when she got Eve to eat from the tree. Where Yang says "I know the right way, I know everything", Yin says "You don't know everything, you never will know everything, and there is no right way." Thus, Adam and Eve were brought down to earth, so to speak, when they partook of the fruit. The expulsion from paradise symbolized their acc eptance of reality, and Yahweh's displeasure symbolized humankind's need to control and escape reality. As one can see, each character in the story of the fall are archtypical symbols for forces within the human psyche... Going back to Lilith, after her appearence in the Prologue, she became described on tablets found in ancient Sumeria as "the hand of Inanna" who swept men into her temples for sacred sexual rights. Lilith became the symbolism of feminine allure, the dangerous seductive qualities of the dark moon.Ã Ã Though she was never a Goddess in Sumerian lore, Lilith was nonetheless an important enough figure for later cultures to take note of her.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The following are some ideas to help you pick a topic for the Market Failure Research Paper assignment. Consult with your instructor if you are having trouble picking a topic. What are some areas where the MARKET fails to give us adequate quantity of output and desirable price (A) Public Goods and Service Ã¢â¬â Schools, Highways and Streets, Fire and Police Protection, National Defense, Prisons (B) Industries that Need to be Regulated Ã¢â¬â Utilities, Airlines, Banks Ã¢â¬â As our economy changes what other industries also need to be regulated or de-regulated? (C) Externalities Ã¢â¬â Companies produce some type of external cost that affects the community. The company would not voluntarily reduce or eliminate this cost unless the government required them to do so. (These could also be benefits that would add to community but not benefit the company in any way.) (D) Income Inequality Ã¢â¬â Minimum Wage, Welfare Programs, Unemployment Benefits, Social Security, Medicaid Ã¢â¬â Areas where our society is becoming more socialized. Assignment: Pick one market in which the price system does not produce an equitable price and quantity of output. Write a paper of 250 words minimum discussion with at least (2) sources cited in the MLA format. Include in your discussion: (1) What action has our government taken in order to provide this good or service in an equitable fashion? (2) What are the alternatives to government intervention? (3) What has been the end result of government intervention? The rise in direct tax has the effect of reducing the post-tax income of those in work because for each hour of work taken the total net income is now lower. This might encourage the individual to work more hours to maintain his/her target income. Conversely, the effect might be to encourage less work since the higher tax might act as a disincentive to work. Of course many workers have little flexibility in the hours that they work. They will be contracted to work a certain number of hours, and changes in direct tax rates will not alter that. The government has introduced a lower starting rate of income tax for lowerÃ income earners. This is designed to provide an incentive for people to work extra hours and keep more of what they earn. Changes to the tax and benefit system also seek to reduce the risk of the Ã¢â¬Ëpoverty trapÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â where households on low incomes see little net financial benefit from supplying extra hours of their labor. If tax and benefit reforms can improve incentives and lead to an increase in the labor supply, this will help to reduce the equilibrium rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and thereby increase the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s non-inflationary growth rate. Changes to indirect taxes in particular can have an effect on the pattern of demand for goods and services. For example, the rising value of duty on cigarettes and alcohol is designed to cause a substitution effect among consumers and thereby reduce the demand for what are perceived as Ã¢â¬Å"de-merit goodsÃ¢â¬ . In contrast, a government financial subsidy to producers has the effect of reducing their costs of production, lowering the market price and encouraging an expansion of demand. The use of indirect taxation and subsidies is often justified on the grounds of instances of market failure. But there might also be a justification based on achieving a more equitable allocation of resources Ã¢â¬â e.g. providing basic state health care free at the point of use. Lower rates of corporation tax and other business taxes can stimulate an increase in business fixed capital investment spending. If planned investment increases, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s capital stock can rise and the capital stock per worker employed can rise. The government might also use tax allowances to stimulate increases in research and development and encourage more business start-ups. A favorable tax regime could also be attractive to inflows of foreign direct investment Ã¢â¬â a stimulus to the economy that might benefit both aggregate demand and supply. The Irish economy is often touted as an example of how substantial cuts in the rate of corporation tax can act as a magnet for large amounts of inward investment. The very low rates of company tax have been influentialÃ although it is not the only factor that has underpinned the sensational rates of economic growth enjoyed by the Irish economy over the last fifteen years. Capital investment should not be seen solely in terms of the purchase of new machines. Changes to the tax system and specific areas of government spending might also be used to stimulate investment in technology, innovation, the skills of the labor force and social infrastructure. A good example of this might be a substantial increase in real spending on the transport infrastructure. Improvements in our transport system would add directly to aggregate demand, but would also provide a boost to productivity and competitiveness. Similarly increases in capital spending in education would have feedback effects in the long term on the supply-side of the economy.
Friday, November 8, 2019
buy custom Understanding Gene Therapy essay Introduction Genes are the basic physical and functional units that enhance heredity. They are capable of encoding instructions that guide processing of proteins by the body (Yashon Cummings, 2012). The processed proteins facilitate most of the life functions and form a better percentage of the cellular structures. When genes are altered, the encoded proteins are rendered ineffective and unable to function normally. This is what causes genetic disorder in a person. According to studies that have been conducted, almost everybody unconsciously carries some defective genes (Giacca, 2010). Lately, there has been increasing attention to the treatment of genetic metabolic diseases. These are diseases that develop as a result of defective genes that cause enzymes to be either absent or generally ineffective and inefficient. Enzymes function in the human body to catalyze metabolic reactions (Giacca, 2010). When these enzymes are ineffective, metabolic processes are slowed down or just fail to take place . This paper seeks to discuss gene therapy, illustrate examples of this treatment approach, discuss the risks and complications, associated with it, and outline some of the ethical principles that guide gene therapy as a method of treatment of genetic disorders. Definition and Understanding of Gene Therapy Gene therapy has been developed to help treat the genetic disorders that result from dysfunctional enzymes. Gene therapy is, thus, a treatment approach that involves replacement of faulty or absent genes with working ones so that the body is able to effectively process and produce correct enzymes or proteins and consequently be able to deal with the root cause of a genetic disease (Kelly, 2007). It is a process that involves introduction of normal and functional genes into the cells of a person, which carry the defective genes so as to enhance reconstitution of the missing protein product. It is a medical treatment process that helps in the correction of a deficient phenotype so that the normal amount of gene products is synthesized by the body. The first gene therapy trial was performed by French Anderson and R. Michael Blaese on a four year old girl in 1990 (Kelly, 2007). In order to perform gene therapy, somatic cells are modified by transferring desired gene sequences into the ge nome. However, for this to succeed, somatic cells are required to ensure that the genes that are inserted to correct the disorder are not carried down to the following generations. Examples of Gene Therapy Gene therapy has been applied widely in the treatment of genetic disorders. This is because almost all cells in the human body contain genes. This makes genetic therapy feasible in virtually all cells of the human body. Gene therapy has been performed in the cells of the body and the ovum or sperm cells. There are, thus, two broad examples of gene therapy; the somatic cell gene therapy and the germ line cell therapy. Somatic Cell Gene Therapy Somatic cell gene therapy entails introduction of genes into body cells or tissues in order to treat a disease in an individual that has been medically diagnosed to have genetic associations or origin (Wintrobe Greer, 2009). This enhances expression of an exogenous functional gene into another persons somatic cells. This genetic therapeutic approach is considered to be non-reproductive since somatic cells, where it is involved are not reproductive cells. There is consensus that this gene cell therapy is safer than other approaches because it only has influence on the targeted cells in the patient. The introduced cells are not, therefore, passed down to the future generations. The effects of a somatic cell gene therapy end with the individual who is treated. This implies that the genetic disorders that are treated through the application of somatic cell gene therapy do not have a bearing on the children of the patient. Somatic cell gene therapy is used to correct errors, relating to metabolism. For example, phenilketonuria has been treated through somatic cell gene therapy. This disorder results from the bodys inability to metabolize phenylalanine. The therapy facilitates elimination of the amino acid. Although this therapy is applicable, it does not address all inborn errors, related to metabolism (Kelly, 2007). In the case of a disorder resulting from abnormal alleles for an essential enzyme that leads to deficient metabolic functions, somatic cell gene therapy has been successfully applied as a treatment strategy. In this treatment practice, a copy of gene, capable of expressing the essential enzyme and enhancing the required metabolic function, is introduced. The cloning genes that are involved in the genetic metabolic dysfunction/disorder are identified. The normal genes are, then, introduced into the prover cell within the body, especially in the area, where metabolism is required, while cont rolling the expression of the gene within the limits of the therapeutic and safe levels (Brown, 2010). There are two sub-examples of the somatic cell gene therapy; the ex vio and the in vivo. The in vivo method involves changing of the cells within the body of the patient. The genes are transferred to cells within the body of the patient. This transfer of desired genes inside the patients body led to the derived name of this method. The ex vivo somatic cell gene therapy involves exterior-focused therapeutic approach (Benigni Remuzzi, 2008). The cells of the body are modified outside the body before they are transferred back into the body again. In some therapeutic trials, the cells from the patients own blood or even the bone marrow are removed, grown in the laboratory for some time before they are transplanted back. During this process, the cells are exposed to the virus that carries the targeted gene. The entry of the virus into the cells enhances insertion of the target gene into the DNA of the cell. The cells are, then, given time to grow in the laboratory before they are again t ransferred into the body of the patient through venal injection (Kelly, 2007). This example of somatic cell gene therapy is referred to as ex vivo because the cells are treated outside the body. Germ line Gene Therapy Germ line gene therapy is a treatment approach that involves delivery of gene to sperm or egg or directly into the cells that are responsible for their production. This example of gene therapy might help in preventing defective genes from being transferred to the subsequent generations. The act of modifying genes at the initial stages of embryonic development is also preferred since it serves as a way of correcting defective genes both in the germ line and within the cells of the body (Wintrobe Greer, 2009). In cases when the germ line gene therapy is carried out in the early embryologic stages like during pre-implantation diagnosis and in the vitro fertilization, genetic transfer could be affected in every cell within the developing embryo. However, there are reservations with the germ line gene therapy. This is because of its risks, especially with the possibility of a permanent therapeutic effect that may affect the following generations through genetic inheritance. Risks, associated with Gene Therapy The risks, associated with gene therapy, are various. These risks relate to the way, in which the genes are delivered. The normal genes that replace defective ones, in a gene therapy process, are usually delivered through carriers, which are normally vectors. Most of these vectors are viruses, which researchers use due to their unique ability to carry genetic material into the cells of a gene (Hutter, 2010). This poses a great potential for risks. To begin with, since gene therapy involves introduction of new foreign cell into the system, the body is bound to react through its immune system. The virus that is introduced into the body through gene therapy may cause the immune system to react and attack the new cell in the same way it reacts to other pathogenic and disease-causing organisms or cells. Such immune responses may not only cause complications in the bodys immunity but also lead to other medical and health complications such as inflammation, toxicity and organ failure in som e extreme instances. Gene therapy can also lead to viral spread. The process involves use of viruses to transfer the desired gene into the body. Hutter (2010) cited that since viruses have the capability of affecting more than one type of body cells, there is a possibility that viral vectors that are used in genetic transfer may end up infecting cells other than the targeted cells. All the cells that contain mutated or missing genes may, thus, be affected. This can be a very unfortunate occurrence since even the healthy cells may end up being affected by the vector-carrying virus. Thus, gene therapy may lead to viral spread, which, in turn, might cause other health complications and spread diseases or illnesses including cancer (Hutter, 2010). Perhaps, one of the greatest risks, associated with gene therapy, is the possibility of the virus to reverse to its original form. Viruses are used to transfer the required genes into the body cells to replace the defective ones that are causing enzyme and other somatic dysfunctions. However, the viruses that are used as vectors or carriers of the desired gene may recover their initial viral and infection ability and cause diseases, once they are introduced into the body through gene therapy (Abraham, 2008). This possibility is quite unfortunate given that gene therapy in itself is originally meant to be a treatment method, which should not lead to the spread of other diseases in the process of treating another disease. The risks of gene therapy have been registered, especially with regard to the ability of the virus to spread and induce tumor formation within the genome (Kelly, 2007). Scientists and researchers have registered their reservations and concerns that if the new genes get inserted or introduced in the wrong spot within the genome, there are chances that the insertion may cause tumor formation (Kelly, 2007). This has been observed by geneticists and scientists in some of the laboratory clinical trials. Besides, the new DNA that is introduced into the body during treatment through gene therapy may end up affecting the reproductive cells of the patient, especially where germ line gene therapy is involved. This may cause changes in the genetic composition and affect the children that are born after one is treated through gene therapy. Complications with Gene Therapy Although trials of gene therapy have significantly been successful, there are a few reservations that have been reported. The few complications that scientific and genetic researchers have realized with gene therapy relate to the medical and health issues that gene therapy as a treatment procedure might cause in a patient. For example, gene therapy has been associated with T-cell leukemia (Abraham, 2008). When the retroviral vector was inserted inappropriately near the proto-oncogene LMO2, the result was a proliferation of uncontrolled mature T cells, which causes T-cell leukemia in a patient. This complication is caused by the lack of both the B and T cells (Gibbs, 1996). Such a complication that result from gene therapy may expose a patient to further medical complications, including the use of bone marrow transplant that is retrieved from a histocompatible sibling of the patient. Unfortunately, this is often not easy to secure or procure. Thus, gene therapy may lead to other compl ications, some of which are very severe and can even be fatal. Gene therapy may lead to interruption of important genetic sequence and harm the cell instead of resolving the genetic and cellular defects that the treatment targets. This is because the retroviruses that penetrate the immune defenses into the target cells often affect the cells in an unpredictable manner. Abraham (2008) cited that the retroviruses may even insert the therapeutic gene at unpredictable position within the cells DNA. This is what might lead to interruption of very important genetic sequences that might have been going on within the cells DNA. Even in the cases, where gene therapy succeeds, the new genes always end up in the dormant parts of the cells DNA (Brown, 2010). In the dormant stretches, the new genes often do not get switched on as frequent enough to be able to make the much required genetic difference in the patient who is undergoing treatment (Gibbs, 1996). Ethical Concerns, surrounding Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a medical treatment involving alteration of the bodys set of basic genetic messages. Since it touches on the very processes that guide life and its characteristics, this treatment approach has raised and continues to raise various ethical issues. One of the ethical concerns that gene therapy is raising is its fairness in terms of the use of the genetic information that is disclosed during the diagnosis and treatment procedures. There are concerns, relating to the use of the genetic information (Cummings, 2009). For example, many people are in a dilemma with regard to the person who should be entitled to the access to the personal genetic information of the patient and how such information will be used. There are concerns about the privacy and confidentiality of the genetic information that is retrieved in the course of gene therapy. Since it is private and personal information, pressure is piling on the need to keep genetic information very private and confidential un der all circumstances. Genetic therapy is often associated with stigmatization. The psychological impact that is created by a persons genetic difference should, thus, be well taken care of before gene therapy is approved. For example, there are concerns about the perceptions of the society towards an individual who undergoes gene therapy. The members of the minority communities are particularly vulnerable to social stigma, associated with gene therapy. Besides, being a complex procedure that has great potentials for risks and complications, there is need to seek adequate informed consent from the patient and the family members before gene therapy is carried out on a patient. This is because gene therapy has very close link and relationship to the reproductive aspects of an individual (Cummings, 2009). The healthcare personnel, thus, need to carefully counsel the patient and the family members about the risks, the limitations and the implications of gene therapy. This ethical aspect is very essential given the clinical issues, uncertainties, complications and risks that are associated with gene therapy. Conclusion Gene therapy is increasingly becoming acceptable and a popular method for treatment of genetic disorders and gene-related diseases and illnesses. Although germ line gene therapy exists, it is still outlawed in most states like the entire European Union because of its implications. Somatic cell gene therapy is, however, acceptably practiced as a treatment method. However, the complications and risks that are associated with gene therapy still limit its use considerably. Thus, there is a need for scientists to evaluate further the safe, effective and efficient ways of using gene therapy as a treatment procedure for genetic disorders giving careful attention to the ethical concerns that this procedure raises. Buy custom Understanding Gene Therapy essay
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Public Information Model Essays Public Information Model Essay Public Information Model Essay Essay Topic: For Whom the Bell Tolls According to McDonalds Canada site, McDonalds has started publicising itself through advertisements during 1967 when they realized that local advertising would be insufficient to support a single identity therefore a percentage of sales would be generated to fund their international advertising campaigns. This is a form of press agentry model due to the form which is to publicise the organisation and with the case of McDonalds, its services and food in any way possible. However, it was not until recently that McDonalds started to apply the four models of public relations as a consequence of the issues that surface and the increase level of social awareness. In the media release entitled Big mac make record cents for charity, they have invited celebrities, local VIPs, community and charity groups for their McHappy Day, another example of press agentry model.Ã An example of public information model is the distribution of nutrition leaflets available in all restaurants in Australia, according to their media release (March 31, 2004). From the very same media release, Sensory Solutions, Australias specialist food research agency did surveys regarding the nutrition information on the packaging, and as a result of this survey McDonalds will start labelling their packaging with nutrition. This is an example of symmetrical model where mutual understanding is created between the public and the organisation. An example of asymmetrical model would be the super size me issue, whereby after obtaining feedback from various organisations, McDonalds added more items on the menu and reinforcing its wholesome goodness of their products through advertisements and debates located on the site entitled A balanced diet, a balanced debate. This is because according to Johnston and Zawawi, feedback is used to determine what the publics attitudes are toward the organisation and how they might be changed (2004, p.9) The changes that are evident here is through the dynamics of their method of communicating themselves towards their publics, from recurring changes of their advertising themes to the usage of different media to communicate to their consumers through the distribution of nutrition leaflets, posts on the internet to name a few.Ã 3. Do you believe the film Super Size Me represents a serious public relations threat to McDonalds? Is the companys response likely to be effective? Give reasons for your answers. For this section, it shall focus on introducing Super Size Me, what constitutes as a public relations threat, whether it represents as a serious public relations threat, and how the documentary has affected McDonalds, including their response towards the phenomenon.Ã Morgan Spurlock, the director has made controversial waves through his release of the documentary entitled Super Size Me. In this documentary he conducted a 30 day experiment which as stated on the site Super Size Me,Ã During the journey, Spurlock also put his own body on the line, living on nothing but McDonalds for an entire month with three simple rules:Ã 1) No options: he could only eat what was available over the counter (water included!) 2) No supersizing [sic] unless offeredÃ 3) No excuses: he had to eat every item on the menu at least onceÃ McDonalds USA states thatÃ This movie is all about one individuals decision to act irresponsibly by consuming more than 5,000 calories a day twice the recommended level for adult males and by purposely limiting his physical activity. Thats why this movie makes no contribution to the important dialogue taking place today on nutrition and balanced lifestyles. Public relations is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between and organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends. Cutlip, Center and Broom (2000, p.6). Whether or not Super size me is a serious threat depends on whether practice of public relations by McDonalds has not complied with the definition. Specifically, if McDonalds has not been catering to the needs of its customers ever since the Super size me crisis, and that customers do not patron McDonalds, and whether mutual benefits have not been created, only then can it be said to be a threat.Ã Super size me should not even be an issue, to Spurlock making complaints about him experiencing physical discomfort which includes internal and external physical tolls on his body in the form of increase in blood sugar and high blood pressure levels, one has to bear in mind that it was due to choice and that he has brought it upon himself. This was the point brought up by another film maker that chose to prove that one could still eat McDonalds and still be healthy. This will be exercised by Soso Whaley where is stated in the site entitled competitive enterprise institute, Whaley will document her experience of eating breakfast, lunch, and dinner at McDonalds for the month of April to dramatize the debate over public health and what has been termed Americas obesity epidemic. By making prudent menu choices, she will demonstrate that no one should blame the nations food purveyors for being overweight or unhealthy even if fast food really were their only choice So is Super Size Me really considered a threat? comments by McDonalds USA were that their focus was still on their customers and not Super Size Me. They have stressed that their social responsibility with regards to their customers has still been upheld with the availability of variety in their menus and the attempts and conducts of continuously refreshing their menus to suit the needs of the community. Furthermore they stated thatÃ McDonalds has always been committed to playing a constructive, responsible role in developing solutions to our customers lifestyle needs offering more menu variety, promoting physical activity, and supporting consumer education.Ã This is also evident in McDonalds worldwide corporate responsibility report 2004 where they uphold the benefits of both their internal and external publics, creating mutual understanding and benefits between both parties hence it not being a serious public relations threat.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Embarrassment and impression management - Research Paper Example His view underlined the importance of communication and suggested that identity of a person is no more than a reflection of the image of the self that is communicated to a person through his/her interactions with others. According to Cooley, people see themselves reflected in each othersÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes and through their communications and interactions with others, gain messages about habits, physical attributes and personal tastes which influences their own judgments and perceptions about self. The control and modulation of the way in which a person chooses to present himself or herself to others is referred to as impression management. Self presentation in the context of impression management has been defined by Jones and Pittman as Ã¢â¬Å"the shaping ofÃ¢â¬ a personÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"responses to create in specific others an impression that is for one reason or another desired by the actor.Ã¢â¬ (Jones and Pittman, 1982: 233). Every person therefore controls the kind of impression s/he wants others to gain by controlling what is revealed to others, i.e, the extent of self disclosure. Goffman(1959) supplemented CooleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory about impression management by offering the view that individuals present themselves as a performance, choosing which role to play at any given time. Mets and Grohskopf (2003) have summarized the management of the presentation of the self as Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which individuals, more or less intentionally, construct a public self that is likely to elicit certain types of attributions from others, attributions that would facilitate the achievement of some goal, usually to acquire social rewards or advantages, or to prevent loss of self esteem when future failure seems probable (p 360). As may be noted from the above views, social integration implies a high degree of attunement to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions about oneself, when this yields a positive perception there is pride and integration of the individual is promoted, but when the individual seeks a negative reflection/perception of the self as gained from the impressions of others, there is shame and a feeling of alienation, which produced embarrassment. One notable example of embarrassment is politician Sarah Palin, who was the Vice Presidential candidate in the American Pr esidential elections of 2008. During the course of the political canvassing, Palin in a radio interview with Glenn Beck, was asked about how she would handle North Korea and responded that we would have to stand by our North Korean allies. This was yet another in a long history of gaffes, such as for example, unable to demonstrate any understanding of the separation of church and state or name a single Supreme Court case, and her claim that she was qualified to handle foreign policy because she was from Alaska which is close to Russia. In responding to the realization that she had made a serious gaffe, Palin defended herself by going on to Facebook and attacking ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s gaffes instead.(Stickings, 2010). It may be noted here that a considerable amount of publicity was devoted
Friday, November 1, 2019
What is normative question and is there a place for normative question - Term Paper Example y have the tendency of finding reason for everything they do and observe because they are not automatons who simply will do what they are asked to do. Instead, people have feelings and dreams which drive them to make sense of the things that affect their lives. Philosophers such as Plato, Confucius and Socrates asked various normative questions, trying to find not only the meaning and reason behind the norms but also the meaning and reason of living itself. However, it does not always take a philosopher to ask these questions. Normative questions have been asked even by nameless, faceless children. Normative questions are the opposite of positive questions. While normative questions focus on value, positive questions concentrate on the facts. For instance, normative questions will ask if a norm is good or bad or if it is right or wrong but positive questions inquire about the how the world moves, what is the distance between the moon and the earth or the speed of a falling body. In other words, positive questions spark a personÃ¢â¬â¢s interest on things that can be described and measured and answered with proofs such as statistics and experiments. The answers for normative questions on the other hand, are based on experience and general observations. In the world today wherein wisdom and intelligence are equated with knowledge about facts, normative questions are not as desired as positive questions. It seems that more and more people are interested in finding out about facts that science can explain. Many people are abandoning the teachings of religions because they claim that only unquestioning fanatics get fooled by the inaccurate teachings of religions. Stories in the Bible, QuÃ¢â¬â¢ran and other religious books have become mere fairytales which only our Ã¢â¬Å"uneducatedÃ¢â¬ ancestors believed to be true. Those who follow such teachings are not considered bright enough to see that they believe stories made up by men. This then brings the issue whether normative